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考研英国文学复习要点(参照教材刘炳善《英国文学简史》)解析

考研英国文学复习要点(参照教材刘炳善《英国文学简史》)解析
考研英国文学复习要点(参照教材刘炳善《英国文学简史》)解析

Part One: Early and Medieval English Literature

1. Beowulf: national epic of the English people; Denmark story; alliteration, metaphors and understatements (此处可能会有填空,选择等小题)

2. Romance (名词解释)

3. “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight”: a famous roman about King Arthur’s story

4. Ballad(名词解释)

5. Character of Robin Hood

6. Geoffrey Chaucer: founder of English poetry; The Canterbury Tales (main contents; 124 stories planned, only 24 finished; written in Middle English; significance; form: heroic couplet)

7. Heroic couplet (名词解释)

Part Two: The English Renaissance

8. The Authorized Version of English Bible and its significance(填空选择)

9. Renaissance(名词解释)

10.Thomas More——Utopia

11. Sonnet(名词解释)

12. Blank verse(名词解释)

13. Edmund Spenser

“The Faerie Queene”; Amoretti (collec tion of his sonnets)

Spenserian Stanza(名词解释)

14. Francis Bacon “essays” esp. “Of Studies”(推荐阅读,学习写正式语体的英文文章的好参照,本文用词正式优雅,多排比句和长句,语言造诣非常高,里面很多话都可以引用做格言警句,非常值得一读)

15. Christopher Marlowe (“Doctor Faustus” and his achievements)

16. William Shakespeare可以说是英国文学史中最重要的作家,一定要看熟了。四大喜剧,四大悲剧比较重要,此外就是罗密欧与朱立叶了,这些剧的主题,背景,情节,人物形象都要熟悉,当然他最重要的喜剧作品是Hamlet这是肯定的。他的sonnet也很重要,最重要属sonnet18。(其戏剧中著名对白和几首有名的十四行诗可能会出选读)

Lecture 1

Part 1 Early and Medieval English Literature

“Early” here means English literature in primitive and slav ery society.

“Medieval period” is a quite special period in English history. In Chinese “Medieval” or “The Middle Age” means “中世纪”. You may hear something about this period. It was called “The Middle Age” because it was considered as the time between ancie nt world and the modern world. Here “Medieval” means English literature in feudal England before the Renaissance.

I. Early English Literature (Anglo-Saxon Literature)

1, Historical Background

1 The earliest inhabitants of the British Isles were Britons, a tribe of Celts. Today most Celts lived in Scotland and Wales.

2 From 55 B.C. to 410 A. D. Romans conquered the Great Britain. The Roman army was led by Julius Caesar, who was a very famous figure in ancient Rome. He was a famous general and conquered lot o f places in Europe and then he became dictator of Rome. He had famous words “I came, I saw, I conquered”. You can see how strong this man’s will is.

Consequence of Roman conquest: a network of highways; scores of towns, including London; Roman lifestyle

3 English Conquest

?Shortly after Romans’ retreat, the Britain was invaded by Anglos, Saxons and Jutes. And by the 7th century Old English emerged.

?Anglo-Saxon period witnessed a transition from tribal society to feudalism.

?Anglo-Saxons were Christianized in the 7th century. Before Christianization, Anglo-Saxons believed in old northern European mythologies. If you are interested in old Britain mythologies you may read the famous novel “The Lord of the Rings”, which was a collection of old northern European mythologies. The Christianization of Anglo-Saxons influenced the record of old English literature.

2, Beowulf —— National epic of English people

1 Definition of epic: an extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero

2 Story of Beowulf

?Ask students to read the story of Beowulf on textbook by themselves and then ask them “What are the three adventures mentioned in the story?”

?The story of Beowulf includes three adventures: killing monster Grendel, killing Grendel’s mother and killing a fire dragon.

3 Some important points

?“Beowulf” is a folk legend brought to England by Anglo-Saxons from their continental homes. However it also reflected the features of the tribal society in Britain.

?Originally Beowulf, the great epic, was in oral form and it must be a collective creation.?Beowulf in the epic is a legendary figure. In formal history you can not find a man named Beowulf.

④Artistic features of “Beowulf”

?Using alliteration

Definition of alliteration: a rhetorical device, meaning some words in a sentence begin with the same consonant sound(头韵)

Some examples on P5

?Using metaphor and understatement

Definition of understatement: expressing something in a controlled way

Understatement is a typical way for Englishmen to express their ideas. You may find some examples on P6

⑤Epic tradition in Europe

long narrative verse, part-historical and part-legendary origin

This tradition can be traced back to Homer’s “Iliad” and “Odyssey”. Similar wo rks in Europe are “Edda” and “Saga” from Iceland etc. (referring to 《欧洲文学史》)

3, “Anglo-Saxon Chronicle”

? The book was conceived by King Alfred the Great. He also organized and supervised the writing process of the book.

?This book is a very important hist orical document and specimen of Anglo-Saxon prose.

II, Medieval English Literature

1, Historical Background

1 Norman conquest in 1066 marks the establishment of feudalism in England.

2 By the end of the 14th century, the Middle English emerged.

3 The ecclesiastics, from the monks and the clergy to the bishops and archbishops, together possessed over one third of the land in the country and owned numerous serfs, and had their tithes and ecclesiastical courts and the backing of the Pope in Rome. They had much political as well as religious power. Understanding the great influence of Christianity in the medieval Europe is very important for you to understand their literature because Christianity is one of the two resources of European culture. (referring to

Lecture 2

2. The Romance(骑士文学)

1 Definition of the Romance: a long composition, sometimes in verse, sometimes in

prose, describing the life and adventures of a noble hero. (P10)

* Knight is a special group of people existed in the Middle Age in Europe. Nearly

all nobles were knights. However, nobody was born a knight. One nobleman who want

to become a knight must experience hard training and then the king will give him

knighthood.

* Codes of the Knight(骑士准则):protect the weak, fight for church, loyal to your

lord, loyal to King, respect women of noble birth(西方人对于男士良好风度的概念

起源于这些骑士准则,是以西方有“骑士风度”说法。)(参阅《欧洲文化入门》)

2 The great majority of the romances fall into three groups: matters of Britain,

matters of France and matters of Rome.

* Charlemagne, a very great French emperor, 查理曼大帝(参阅《欧洲文化入门》)

* Alexander the Great, a very great emperor in ancient Greece, 亚历山大大帝,目

前埃及名城亚历山大就是以他的名字命名(参阅《欧洲文化入门》)

3 The Romance of King Arthur and his Round Table knights, whose origin was in Celtic

legend, is comparatively the most important for the history of English literature,

especially the works called “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight”.关于亚瑟王的传说

来自英国的凯尔特民族的传说,《格温爵士和绿衣骑士》的故事可以在陈嘉《英国文学史》

第34到35页找到。

? The theme of loyalty to king and lord is an important common theme of the Romance.

So they were composed for the noble class.

* 英国的骑士文学(Romance)并没有产生如同法国的《罗兰之歌》那样多姿多彩的作品,中

世纪在整个欧洲骑士文学还是有很多的读者,有一些人甚至对骑士文学的喜爱到达痴迷的程

度,比如西班牙作家塞万提斯的名作《唐吉诃德》中刻画的主人公便是一位让人觉的可笑又

觉的同情的骑士文学迷。(参阅《欧洲文学史》)

3. “Piers the Plowman”(农夫皮尔斯)

1 The author – William Langland

Read his life story by yourself. (P12)

He was lived in lower social position all his life and he was a person with strong

Christian color. These two elements concerning with his life experience influenced his literary creation.

2 Story

Read P12 to P16 and answer the following questions:

?What kinds of people were considered as parasites?

?Religion was compared to what kind of person?

?What kind of social phenomenon was represented by Lady Meed?

?Lady Meed is asked by King to marry whom?

?Why Conscience refused to ma rry Lady Meed?

?Who is the hero of the poem? What kind of person he is?

3 Features

?Important point which makes the work special: The author considers the peasant named Piers to be the nearest to truth and salvation. (It was in the Middle Ages. Nearly all literary works produced at that time was written about those noblemen.) ?Form: a series of dreams

?Style: alliterative verse

?Social significance: kindling the toiling people’s sense of human dignity and equality before God and playing a part in arousing their revolutionary sentiment ?Limitations: conservatism (See P16 “The Class Nature of Piers”); Strong Christian color

?Artistic feature of the production: allegory(寓言), personification(拟人), symbolism(象征主义,用作品中具体的形象来代替某种现象或一个抽象概念)The usage of symbolism became a tradition of English literature. You may find lots of similar works in later English literature, for example, Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress. 4, The English Ballads

1 Definition of the ballad: A ballad is a story told in song, usually in 4-line stanzas, with the second and fourth lines rhymed.(rhymed在这里指第二行和第四行最后一个词以相同或近似的元音和辅音结尾)

2 Features of ballads

?Flourished in the 15th century

?Originally oral literature (Ballads were collected and written down in the 18th century. Earliest publication of colle ction of ballads was Thomas Percy’s “Reliques of Ancient English Poetry”.)

?Collective creation (no certain writer for each ballad)

?Ballads wrote on all kinds of subjects.

3 Robin Hood Ballads(罗宾汉)

?Of all the ballads, those written about Robin Hood are c omparatively important. ?Robin Hood is a partly historical and partly legendary character.(罗宾汉本来是一个很普通的历史人物,但是在人们的传说中逐渐被神化,成为了民谣中描写的传说中的形象,这种方式与中国历史上关羽的形象很近似。)

?Important points of the character of Robin Hood: hatred for the cruel oppressors and love for the poor; orthodox in religion; reverence for the King (just an illusion) ?Social Significance: showing the fighting spirit, courage and revolutionary energy of English peasantry

(Robin Hood是英国文学史中的一个绿林英雄形象,与中国文学中的许多劫富济贫的形象很相近,特别是《水浒》中的很多人物形象。)

17. Ben Jonson个别戏剧的名字要能和人对上号,如Every Man in His Humor, 二外好像在这里出过一道匹配题,但是不用看太具体。

Part Three: The Period of the English Bourgeois Revolution

18. John Milton 三大史诗非常重要,特别是Paradise Lost和Samson Agonistes。对于Paradise Lost需要知道它是blank verse写成的,故事情节来自Old Testament,具体情节在课本124页,另外要知道此书theme和Satan的形象。对于Samson Agonistes要知道它是poetical drama,知道故事大概情节及其来源。另外129页到130页brief summary 中5条要看。

19. John Bunyan——The Pilgrim’s Progress

20. Founder of the Metaphysical school——John Donne; features of the school: philosophical poems, complex rhythms and strange images

21. Andrew Marvell 此人不重要,但他有一首名诗To His Coy Mistress

22. John Dryden——“All for Love”(a tragedy); “An Essay of Dramatic Poesy”(Literary criticism); forerunner of the Classicism in Britain

Part Four: The Eighteen Century

23. Enlightenment(名词解释)

24. Classicism(名词解释)

25. Richard Steele——“The Tatler”

26. Joseph Addison——“The Spectator”这个比上面那个要重要,注意这个报纸和我们今天的报纸不一样,它虚构了一系列的人物,以这些人物的口气来写报纸上刊登的散文,这一部分要仔细读。

27. Steel’s and Addison’s styles and their contributions

28. Alexander Pope: “Essay on Criticism”, “Essay on Man”, “The Rape of Lock”, “The Dunciad”; his workmanship (features) and limitations

29. Jonathan Swift: “Gulliver’s Travels”此书非常重要,要知道具体内容,就是Gulliver游历过的四个地方的英文名称,和每个部分具体的讽刺对象; “The Drapier’s

Letters” and “A Modest Proposal”, 后一篇比较重要,要注意后一篇作者用的irony 也就是反讽手法。

30. The rise and growth of the realistic novel is the most prominent achievement of 18th century English literature.

31. Daniel Defoe: “Robinson Crusoe”, “Moll Flanders”, 当然是Robinson Crusoe 比较重要,剧情要清楚,179页这一节最后一段,有Robinson Crusoe的形象和故事中蕴涵的早期黑奴的原形,以及殖民主义的萌芽。另外注意Defoe的style和feature,另外Defoe 是forerunner of English realistic novel。

32. Samuel Richardson——“Pamela” (first epistolary novel), “Clarissa Harlowe”, “Sir Charles Grandison”

33. Henry Fielding: “Joseph Andrews”, “Jonathan Wild”, “Tom Jones”第一个和第三个比较重要,需要仔细看。他是一个比较重要的作家,200页founder of the English Realistic novel部分要看,201页第3点features也要看,另外Fielding也被称为father of the English novel.

34. Laurence Sterne——“Tristram Shandy”

35. Richard Sheridan——“The School for Scandal”

36. Samuel Johnson——“Dictionary”, “Letter to Lord Chesterfield” (the writers’ declaration of independence)

37. Oliver Goldsmith——“The Traveller”(poem), “The Deserted Village” (poem) (both two poems were written by heroic couplet), “The Vicar of Wakefield” (novel), “The Good-Natured Man” (comedy), “She stoops to Conquer” (comedy), “The Citizen of the World” (collection of essays)

38. Edward Gibbon——“The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”

40. Sentimentalism(名词解释)

41. Thomas Gray——“Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”(英国诗歌里非常著名的一首,曾经被誉为“有史以来英国诗歌里最好的一首”)(a representative of sentimentalism and graveyard school of poets墓园派诗人)

*Graveyard School / Poet s”: A term applied to eighteenth-century poets who wrote meditative poems, usually set in a graveyard, on the theme of human mortality, in moods which range from elegiac pensiveness to profound gloom. The vogue resulted in one of the most widely known Engl ish poems, Thomas Gray’s “Elegy written in a country churchyard”. The writing of graveyard poems spread from England to Continental literature in the second part of the century and also influenced some American poets.

42. In the latter half of the 18th century, Pre-Romanticism; representative: William Blake and Robert Burns.

43. Thomas Percy——“Reliques of Ancient English poetry”许多中古的民谣都是在这

个时期重新收集和整理起来的,这个集子是那个时代比较有名的一个民谣集。

44. William Blake比较重要,需要对主要作品有所了解,特别是Songs of Innocence 和Songs of Experience, 这两本集子的contrast一定要注意,另外Blake的写作特点也要注意,比如语言的简单明了,神秘主义氛围等。

45. Robert Burns伟大的苏格兰民族诗人, A Red Red Rose, Scots Wha Hae, Auld Lang Syne 等名诗,写作特点: Scottish dialect; a poet of peasant and Scottish people; plain language; influence from Scottish folk songs and ballads; musical quality of his

poems.

Part Five: Romanticism in England

46. Romanticism(名词解释)要对浪漫主义兴起的时间,根源,主要特点,主要代表作家都有所了解。

47.William Wordsworth要知道他的“Lyrical Ballads”前言是英国浪漫主义时期开始的标志,也是宣言。Lake Poets(名词解释)。他诗歌的主要两类题材:nature and common people’s lives。写过的著名作品:I wandered lonely as a cloud; To the cuckoo; Lines composed a few miles above Tintern Abbey; The solitary reaper; We are seven 等等。

48. Samuel Taylor Coleridge两首名诗:The Rime of the Ancient Mariner; Kubla Khan主要写作supernatural题材。

49. George Gordon Byron,Byronic Heroes (名词解释); 著名作品:Child Harold’s Pilgrimage要知道大致内容,另外此诗用Spenserian Stanza写成;Don Juan要知道大致内容,及其诗体attava rima。

50. Percy Bysshe Shelley著名作品:Queen Mab; The Revolt of Islam; Prometheus Unbound (lyrical drama,要知道大致内容及此剧与古希腊的“被束缚的普罗米修斯”不同之处及其意义。)其它名作: Ode to the West Wind; To a skylark; One word is too often profaned等等。51. John Keats著名作品:Ode to Autumn; Ode to a Nightingale; Ode on a Grecian Urn”。注意Keats与Byron和Shelley的不同,Keats的诗歌没有两人那么强的革命性,他的诗歌主要是为了缔造一个唯美的世界,为了追求美而写作的。

52. Charles Lamb:The Essays of Elia (humorous, archaisms, quotations from other writers)

53. Walter Scott: founder and great master of the historical novel; his death marks the ending of Romantic Period in English literature; famous novels: Rob Roy, Ivanhoe; features of his novels (P322)

Part Six: English Critical Realism

54. Critical Realism批判现实主义,要知道它兴起的时间,历史背景,主要代表人物及主要特点。

55. Charles Dickens主要作品: The Pickwick Papers (first novel); Oliver Twist; Dombey and Son; David Copperfield; A Tales of Two Cities等等,对这些主要作品除了第一部以外剩下的要对情节,主要人物形象,主题及其意义有所了解,另外要知道狄更斯的小说的特色(P362-P363)。

56. William Makepeace Thackeray主要作品即Vanity Fair要知道这个题目出自John Bunyan 的The Pilgrim’s Progress,另外小说的副标题“A novel without a hero”的意思,小说的情节,主题,人物形象都要了解。

57. Jane Austen主要作品ride and Prejudice其它5部小说在书上372页,知道名字即可,

对于《傲慢与偏见》课本上介绍的不详细,可以找其它文学史书籍来简单看一下它的情节和主要人物。Austen的写作特点:thin plot, mostly everyday life of simle country society; good at writing young girls; modest satire; witty dialogues。

58. Charlotte Bronte主要作品Jane Eyre,要知道其情节和意义,另外简爱的人物形象也比较重要。

59. Emily Bronte主要作品Wuthering Heights,情节,人物形象及意义。勃朗特姐妹的小说虽然写作在批判现实主义时期,但其作品有明显的浪漫主义特色,比如包含的一些supernatural elements,特别体现在呼啸山庄中。

60. Mrs. Gaskell, one of the first English writers to describe the class struggle in a novel, famous novel: “Mary Barton”.不需要看太详细。

61. George Eliot主要作品: Adam Bede, The Mill on Floss, Silas Marner简单了解即可。

Part Seven: Prose-writers and poets of the mid and later 19th century

62. Thomas Carlyle, John Ruskin, Matthew Arnold简单了解即可。

63. Alfred Tennyson主要作品: In Memoriam, The Idylls of the Kings;有名的短诗Break, Break, Break; Crossing the bar等,此人政治态度保守,作品追求形式上的完美,富于音乐性和色彩。具体写作特色参看P410-P411。

64. Robert Browning introduced dramatic monologue to poetry. (P416) His famous poems: “Home-thoughts from a broad” etc. Elizabeth Barrett Browning: “Sonnets from the Portuguese”.

65. 简单了解William Morris主要作品,写作特点,及其意义等。

66. Aestheticism唯美主义(名词解释)Oscar Wilde主要作品,写作特点及其意义简要了解。Part Eight: Twentieth Century English Literature

67. Thomas Hardy, Wessex novels,要知道为什么叫Wessex,书上P458。著名作品:Tess of D’Urberville(情节,主要人物形象,主题及意义),Far from the madding crowd, Jude the obscure 等等。Hardy小说的特色(P459第一段)。

Part Eight: Twentieth Century English Literature

67. Thomas Hardy, Wessex novels,要知道为什么叫Wessex,书上P458。著名作品:Tess of D’Urberville(情节,主要人物形象,主题及意义),Far from the madding crowd, Jude the obscure 等等。Hardy小说的特色(P459第一段)。

68. John Galsworthy: 主要作品“The Forsyte Saga”注意这是两个trilogy构成的,可不是一本小说,其中比较重要的是“The Man of Property”就是书上介绍的那一部,要知道此部小说主人公的名字,以及这个主人公的性格,和小说主题。书上介绍这个作家的部分的最后一段算是这个作家的写作特点。这位作家在20世纪声名是逐渐下降的,但是还是有些学校会考到他。

69. The Irish Dramatic Movement(名词解释)

Irish Renaissance(名词解释)

70. George Bernard Shaw主要作品Mrs Warren’s Profession和Major Babara,如果看的是其它版本的英国文学史,可能会选其它的作品,对他作品的主要人物,情节,主题和意义要了解,他是比较重要的一个作家。

71. William Butler Yeats几首有名的诗歌如“Sailing to Byzantium” , “The Second Coming”, “The Wild Swan at Coole”要知道,另外他诗歌的特点如symbolism, mysticism, modernists’ influence等等。

72. T. S. Eliot比较重要,特别是他的The Waste Land要知道包括哪几个部分,大概是什么情节,有什么象征意义,主题是什么,有什么写作特点。另外他的其它作品也有某些学校考到过,也要知道,比如他的诗剧Murder in the Cathedral等等,要知道大概的情节。另外他著

名的文章Tradition and the Individual Talent被认为是manifesto of modernist poetry.

73. Modernist fiction put emphasis on the description of the characters’ psychological activities under the influence of Austrian doctor Sigmund Freud’s theories.

74. D. H. Lawrence重点作品Sons and Lovers这个作品明显受到弗洛伊德影响,特别是其中体现的Oedipus complex,对其人物,主题要有了解;The Rainbow及其续篇Women in Love 要有简单了解,特别是对其主题。Lady Chatterley’s Lover简单了解即可。492页第三段对Lawrence的思想做了个简单总结,这一段中指出的劳伦斯的思想特点以及局限性要了解。

75. Stream-of-consciousness(名词解释)

76. James Joyce其它作品简单了解,但Ulysses非常重要,需要知道题目来源,题目的含义,小说的主人公和情节,以及主题。

77. Virginia Woolf重要的意识流作家,主要作品要知道在496页第二段,书上主要介绍的是To the Lighthouse,其实她的其它几部作品特别是Mrs. Dalloway也比较出名,需要了解一下。

刘炳善《英国文学简史》完整版笔记(免费)

英国文学简史完全版 A Concise History of British Literature Chapter 1 English Literature of Anglo-Saxon Period I. Introduction 1. The historical background (1)Before the Germanic invasion (2)During the Germanic invasion a. immigration; b. Christianity; c. heptarchy. d. social classes structure: hide-hundred; eoldermen (lord)– thane - middle class (freemen)- lower class (slave or bondmen: theow); e. social organization: clan or tribes. f. military Organization; g. Church function: spirit, civil service, education; h. economy: coins, trade, slavery; i. feasts and festival: Halloween, Easter; j. legal system. 2. The Overview of the culture (1)The mixture of pagan and Christian spirit. (2)Literature: a. Poetry: two types; b. prose: two figures. II. Beowulf.

英国文学简史问答题期末考试复习提纲教学教材

1. How much do you know about the English literature in the Romantic Age? ①The Romantic Age in England was like the Elizabethan Age, distinctively an age of poetry. It was regarded as the second great age in English literary history; for poetry is the highest form of literary expression, and seems to have been most in harmony with the noblest powers of the English genius. The glory of the age is in the poetry of Scott, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelly, Keats, Moore, and Southey; ②Women novelists appeared in this age. It was during this period that women assumed for the first time, an important place in English literature. Mrs. Anne Radcliff was one of the most successful writers of the school of exaggerated romance. Jane Austen offered us her charming descriptions of everyday life in her enduring work her masterpiece----Pride and Prejudice; ③The greatest historical novelist Walter Scott also appeared in this period. His historical novels combine a romantic atmosphere with a realistic description of historical background and common people life. Scott marked the transition from romanticism to the period of realism which followed it; ④Romantic prose was represented by Lamb, Hazlitt, De Quincey and Hume. Lamb was the best essayist, whose familiar essays are very famous. 3.What are the major features of Dickens’ novels? ①Dickens’ novels offer a most complete and realistic picture of the English bourgeois society of his age. His novels tell much of the unhappy experiences of his own childhood. They reflect the protest of the people against capitalist exploitation, and criticize the vices of capitalist society. ② The success of Dickens novels also lies in his character-portrayal. Not only are the major characters in his novels very carefully delineated and given distinctive individual characteristics but also his minor figures create in the readers’ mind strong impressions of their personalities. Some of Dickens’characters are really such “typical characters under typical circumstances”that they become proverbial or are representative of a whole group of similar persons. ③Dickens is a great humorist and satirist. His novels are full of humor and satire ④Dickens is not especially known for the construction of plot in his novels. There is in his novels often more than one minor thread of story beside the major one, and these threads are generally very loosely woven together. He seems to love a complicated and involved plot. ⑤In almost every one of Dickens’ novels there is a happy ending, which points to the author’s optimism which is an admirable thing for a critical realist because that means his still has his hopes after seeing the gloomy world all around him and one hand, and as a petty-bourgeois intellectual, could not overstep the limits of his class on the other hand. ⑥Another feature in Dickens’novels is his adroit use of language. On the whole Dickens has a richness of expressions and generally succeeds in using the right words and phrases at the right moments for the right characters to attain the right effects. 12. What are the characteristics of Dickens’ novels?(同第三题)

英国文学简史复习资料

A SHORT HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE 1. the Angles, Saxons and Jutes were three tribes from Northern Europe. 2.English literature began with the Anglo-Saxon settlement in England. It is Beowulf, the national epic of the English people. 3.Features of Beowulf 贝奥武普: the most striking feature in its poetical form is the use of alliteration头韵.(definition)In alliterative verse, certain accented words in a line begin with the same consonant sound. Other features of Beowulf are the use of metaphors and of understatements. 4. The French-speaking Normans under Duke William came in 1066.(the Norman Conquest) 5. The Romance 罗曼司---the most prevailing kind of literature in feudal England. It was a long composition, sometimes in prose, describing the life and a adventures of a noble hero. Adventures of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table 6. The Class Nature of the Romance The theme of loyalty to king and lord was repeatedly emphasized in romance , as loyalty was the corner-stone of feudal morality, without which the whole structure of feudalism would collapse. They were composed for the noble, of the noble, and in most cases by the poets patronized by the noble. 7.the Ballads 民谣The most important department of English folk literature is the ballad. A ballad is a story told in song; usually in 4-line, with the second and fourth lines rhymed. 8. The Robin Hood Ballad --- the various ballads of Robin Hood are gathered into a collection called The Geste of Robin Hood.绿林好汉罗宾汉的故事 9. The founder of English poetry is Geoffrey Chaucer. 乔叟 The Canterbury Tales ---(1) a collection of 24 stories (2)close links---stories are closely connected to each other (3)stories into groups on different subjects -- story-tellers, from ranks, professions, religions (4)variation in form 三大著名教堂:Westminster Cathedral 西敏寺大教堂Saint Pail’s Cathedral 圣保罗大教堂Canterbury Cathedral 坎特布雷大教堂 10.The Renaissance and Humanism The rise of the bourgeoisie soon showed its influence in the sphere of cultural life. The result is an intellectual movement known as the Renaissance, or, the rebirth of letters. It spang first in Italy in the 14th century and gradually spread all over Europe. Two features

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英国文学史资料British Writers and Works I. Old English Literature & The Late Medieval Ages 贝奥武夫:the national epic of the Anglo-Saxons Epic: long narrative poems that record the adventures or heroic deeds of a hero enacted in vast landscapes. The style of epic is grand and elevated. e.g. Homer?s Iliad and Odyssey Artistic features: https://www.docsj.com/doc/651566673.html,ing alliteration Definition of alliteration: a rhetorical device, meaning some words in a sentence begin with the same consonant sound(头韵) Some examples on P5 https://www.docsj.com/doc/651566673.html,ing metaphor and understatement Definition of understatement: expressing something in a controlled way Understatement is a typical way for Englishmen to express their ideas Geoffery Chaucer 杰弗里?乔叟1340(?)~1400 (首创“双韵体”,英国文学史上首先用伦敦方言写作。约翰·德莱顿(John Dryden)称其为“英国诗歌之父”。代表作《坎特伯雷故事集》。) The father of English poetry. It is ____alone who, for the first time in English literature, presented to us a comprehensive (综合的,广泛的)realistic picture of the English society of his time and created a whole gallery of vivid characters from all walks of life. ( A ) A. Geoffrey Chaucer B. Matin Luther C. William Langland D. John Gower writing style: wisdom, humor, humanity. ① 坎特伯雷故事集: first time to use …heroic couplet?(双韵体) by middle English ②特罗伊拉斯和克莱希德 ③ 声誉之宫 Medieval Ages’ popular Literary form: Romance(传奇故事) Famous three:King Arthur Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Beowulf II The Renaissance Period A period of drama and poetry. The Elizabethan drama is the real mainstream of the English Renaissance. Renaissance: the activity, spirit, or time of the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe beginning in the 14th century and extending to the 17th century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world. Two features 1. a thirsting curiosity for the clasical literature 2.the keen interst in the activities of humanity.

完整word版英国文学简史复习资料整理版

I. Old English Literature & the Late Medieval Ages :the national epic of the Anglo-Saxons 贝奥武夫 1340(?)~1400 ?乔叟Geoffrey Chaucer 杰弗里

The father of English poetry. 坎特伯雷故事集:① ) by middle English (双韵体‘heroic couplet'first time to use 特罗伊拉斯和克莱希德②The House of Fame>声誉之宫 ③ 皆大欢喜; 第十二夜; < A Midsummer Night'S Dream>仲夏夜之梦; 威尼斯商人 ③Four Tragedies: 哈姆莱特; 奥赛罗; 李尔王; 麦克白 ④Shakespeare Sonnet :154 Three quatrain and one couplet, ababcdcdefefgg A sonnet is a lyric consisting of 14 lines, usually in iambic pentameter restricted to a definition rhyme scheme. ⑤the comedy of errors 错中错,Titus Andronicus泰特斯·安特洛尼克斯,The Taming of the shrew 驯悍记Love's labour's lost (爱的徒劳) Romeo and Juliet 罗密欧与朱丽叶Much ado about nothing(无事生非)The merry wives of Windsor. 温莎的风流娘们King John 约翰王 All's well that ends well 终成眷属Measure for measure(一报还一报)

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刘炳善《英国文学简史》(第3版)模拟试题及详解(二) I.Fill in the blanks 1.Two English poets,_____and_____published a book of poems Lyrical Ballads.【答案】William Wordsworth;Samuel Taylor Coleridge 【解析】1798年,华兹华斯和柯勒律治联合出版了《抒情歌谣集》,标志着英国浪漫主义的诞生。 2.Samson Agonistes was written by_____. 【答案】John Milton 【解析】《力士参孙》是英国作家John Milton的一部悲剧。 3.Of the four novels that Charlotte Bront?wrote,_____has achieved lasting fame.【答案】Jane Eyre 【解析】在夏洛特·勃朗特所写的四部小说中,《简·爱》获得了持久的名声。 4.Through the military life experience of Guy,and disillusionment of his dream of elimination of the evils through just wars,Evelyn Waugh explores in his work, _____,the nature of war. 【答案】Unconditional Surrender 【解析】伊夫林·沃在小说《无条件投降》(Unconditional Surrender)写到,盖伊希望通过战争消除罪恶的梦想最终破灭,从而以此来探索自己对战争本质的认识。

英国文学简史期末考试复习要点资料

英国文学简史期末考试复习要点

一、中世纪文学(约5世纪—1485) ?《贝奥武甫》(Beowulf) ?《高文爵士和绿衣骑士》(Sir Gawain and the Green Knight ) 杰弗利·乔叟(Geoffrey Chaucer) “英国诗歌之父”。(Father of English Poetry) 《坎特伯雷故事》(The Canterbury Tales) 二、文艺复兴时期文学(15世纪后期—17世纪初) ?托马斯·莫尔(Thomas More ) 《乌托邦》(Utopia) ?埃德蒙·斯宾塞(Edmund Spenser) 《仙后》(The Faerie Queene) ?弗兰西斯·培根(Francis Bacon) 《论说文集》(Essays) 克里斯托弗·马洛 Christopher Marlowe ?《帖木儿大帝》(Tamburlaine) ?《浮士德博士的悲剧》(The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Dr. Faustus) ?《马耳他岛的犹太人》(The Jew of Malta) 威廉·莎士比亚William Shakespeare ) 《哈姆莱特》(Hamlet) SONNET18 三、17世纪文学 约翰·弥尔顿 John Milton 《失乐园》(Paradise Lost) ?约翰·班扬(John Bunyan) 《天路历程》(The Pilgrim’s Progress) 四、启蒙时期文学(17世纪后期—18世纪中期) 18世纪初,新古典主义成为时尚。新古典主义推崇理性,强调明晰、对称、节制、优雅,追求艺术形式的完美与和谐。 亚历山大·蒲柏(Alexander Pope)是新古典主义诗歌的代表。 ?乔纳森·斯威夫特 Jonathan Swift 《格列佛 ?丹尼尔·笛福 Daniel Defoe 英国小说之父 《鲁滨孙漂流记》(Robinson Crusoe) ?亨利·菲尔丁 Henry Fielding 《汤姆·琼斯》(Tom Jones) ?乔纳森·斯威夫特 Jonathan Swift 《格列佛游记》Gulliver’s Travels ?亨利·菲尔丁 Henry Fielding 《汤姆·琼斯》(Tom Jones) 托马斯·格雷 Thomas Gray 《墓园哀歌》(Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard) 五、浪漫主义时期文学(1798-1832) ?罗伯特·彭斯 Robert Burns ?威廉·布莱克 William Blake ?威廉·华兹华斯 William Wordsworth ?塞缪尔·泰勒·柯勒律治 Samuel Taylor Coleridge 《抒情歌谣集》(Lyrical Ballads)

英美文学期末复习

1.Climax is the point at which one opposing force overcomes the other and conflict is resolved. 高潮在这一点上,一个反对力量克服了其他和冲突解决。 2. round character and flat character: flat character is cartoon like, usu. exaggerated. Round character is lifelike, who has both advantages and disadvantages, grows as the plot develops and usu. undergoes some change.一样和平板字符:平淡的角色动画,usu.夸大。圆形人物栩栩如生,谁都有各自的优势和劣势,随着情节发展,usu.经历一些变化。 3. Journey story is also called Picaresque novel, in which there is always a trip, and characters grow and develop along the journey, such as A Journey to the West, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.In this kind of story, there are lots of interesting episodes instead of all-unifying plot旅程的故事也被称为流浪汉小说,总有一个旅行,和人物沿途的成长和发展,比如《西游记》、《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》。在这样的故事,有很多有趣的情节,而不是all-unifying阴谋 4. Gothic novel is an old genre since 18th century, from which detective story, fantasy story, mystery story derive. 哥特式小说是一个古老的风格自18世纪以来,侦探小说,幻想故事,神秘的故事中。 5. Novels of the soil focus on country life, and usu. more on its hardship than on its pleasure.土壤的小说关注乡村生活,和usu.更困难比快乐。 6. The plot development in a fiction or drama can be divided into five stages: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution. 小说或戏剧的情节发展可分为五个阶段:博览会,上行,高潮,下降动作,决议。 7. Essays can be divided into narration, description, exposition, argumentation论文可以分为叙述、描述、博览会、论证 8. American literature can be divided into5 stages:Colonial Period, Reason and revolution, romanticism, realism, modernism美国文学可分为5个阶段:殖民时期,理性和革命浪漫主义、现实主义、现代主义 9. Figure of speech: personification treats objects as human beings, which are described with human emotion and action.图的言论:化身把对象作为人类,与人类情感和行为描述。 10. Poetry can be divided into three types: narrative(ballard, epic, etc), dramatic, lyric.诗歌可分为三种类型:叙事(巴拉德、史诗等),戏剧性,抒情。 11. Allegory is a story in which events and human characters represent abstract ideas and teach a moral lesson. While fable is usu. Written for kids, and the characters are often animals.寓言故事的事件和人物代表抽象的概念和给一个道德教训。而寓言一般,为孩子们写的和人物往往是动物。 12. Noah Webster is a lexicographer, who onc e said “America must be as independent in literature as she is in politics, as famous for the arts as for arms.”诺亚·韦伯斯特词典编纂者,曾说过“美国必须像她那样独立的文学在政治、艺术作为武器一样出名。” 13. Washington Irving is the father of American Literature. His style includes entertainment, humor, vivid plot and characters, musical rhythm, historical elements. He wrote Rip V an Winkle, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, A History of New York, The Sketch Book华盛顿·欧文是美国文学之父。他的风格包括娱乐、幽默、生动的情节和人物,音乐节奏,历史元素。他写了里普·万·温克尔,无头骑士的传说,纽约的历史素描的书 14. James Cooper is first major frontier novel writer, who starts the tradition of writing western frontier life. His Leatherstocking Tales center around the hunter Natty Bumppo, including Deerslayer, Pathfinder, The Last of Mohicans,

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英国文学简史刘炳善

Part 1. Old and medieval Beowulf 贝尔武甫(the national epic of the English people) stricking feature: alliteration, metaphors and understatements. 1.William Langland 威廉。兰格伦: Piers the Plowman耕者皮尔斯 1.Geoffrey Chaucer杰佛利·乔叟1340-1400: 长诗:The House of Fame声誉之堂; Troilus and Criseyde特罗勒斯与克丽西德小说:Canterbury Tales坎特伯雷故事集----英国文学史上现实主义第一部杰作(他是最早有人文主义思想的作家,现实主义文学的奠基人)his contribution to English poetry: introduced from France the rhymed couplet of 5 accents in iambic meter (the heroic couplet), is the first great poet who wrote in the English language. Who making the dialect of London the standard for the modern English speech. Part 2. The English renaissance 1.Thomas More托马斯。莫尔:Utopia乌托帮 1.Philip Sidney菲力普。锡德尼:Astrophel and Stella Apology for Poetry诗辩3.Edmond Spenser埃德蒙。斯宾塞: The Faerie Queen仙后The Shepherds’s Calender 牧羊人日历 4.Francis Bacon培根1561-1626: Advancement of Learning学术的进展; Novum Organum新工具; New Atlantic新大西岛; Essays论文集(Of Studies论学习;Of Wisdom for a Man’s Self) The founder of English materialist philosophy 5.Christopher Marlowe克里斯托夫。马洛: Tamburlaine铁木耳大帝Dr.Faustus 浮士德的悲剧The Jew of Malta马耳他的犹太人The Passionate Shepherd多情的牧羊人致情人 6.William Shakespeare莎士比亚1564-1616: The Tempest暴风风雨;The Two Gentlemen of Veronaz维罗纳二绅士;The Mercy Wives of Windsor温莎的风流妇人;Measure for Measure恶有恶报;The Comedy of Errors错中错;Much Ado about Nothing无事自扰;Love’s Labour’s Lost空爱一场;A Midsummer Night’s Dream仲夏夜之梦;The Merchant of Venice威尼斯商人;As You Like It如愿;The Taming of the Shrew驯悍记;All’s Well That Ends Well皆大欢喜;Twelfth Night第十二夜;The Winter’s Tale冬天的故事;The Life and Death of King John/Richard the Second/Henry the Fifth/Richard the Third约翰王/理查二世/亨利五世/理查三世;The First/Second Part of King Henry the Fourth亨利四世(上、下);The First/Second/Third Part of King Henry the Sixth亨利六世(上、中、下);The Life of King Henry the Eighth亨利八世;Troilus and Cressida脱爱勒斯与克莱西达;The Tragedy of Coriolanus考利欧雷诺斯;Titus Andronicus泰特斯·安庄尼克斯;Romeo and Julet罗密欧与朱丽叶;Timon of Athens雅典的泰门;The Life and Death of Julius Caesar;朱利阿斯·凯撒;The Tragedy of Macbeth麦克白;The Tragedy of Hamlet哈姆雷特/王子复仇记;King Lear李尔王;Othello奥塞罗;Antony and Cleopatra安东尼与克利欧佩特拉;Cymbeline辛白林;Pericles波里克利斯;Venus and Adonis维诺斯·阿都尼斯;Lucrece露克利斯;The Sonnets十四行诗 The Great Comedies:A Midsummer Night’s Dream仲夏夜之梦;The Merchant of Venice威尼斯商人;As You Like It如愿;;Twelfth Night第十二夜;

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英国文学 Charles Dickens查理·狄更斯 Oliver Twist雾都孤儿(first true novel);Hard Times艰难时刻;A Tale of Two Cities双城记;Great Expectations远大前程;Pickwick Papers匹克威克外传;David Copperfield大卫科波菲尔;Bleak House荒凉山庄 Thomas Hardy托马斯·哈代 Under the Greenwood Tree在绿荫下;Far from the Madding Crowd远离尘嚣;The Return of the Native还乡;The Mayor of Casterbridge卡斯特乔市长;Jude the Obscure无名的裘德;A Pure Women诱奸 美国文学 Part 1. The Literature of Colonial America殖民时期文学 Puritanism对美国文学最有影响力的一种文学形式 The American puritans: a group of serious, religious idealists, advocating highly religious and moral principles. They made it their chief business to see that man lived and thought and acted in a way which tended to the glory of God. Basic Puritan Beliefs:①total depravity (concept of Original Sin)②unconditional election(concept of predestination)③limited atonement④irresistible grace⑤Perseverance of the "saints" Part 2. National Literature民族文学(启蒙文学) Benjamin Franklin本杰明?富兰克林 The Autobiography自传 Thomas Paine托马斯?潘恩(爱国主义作家) Common Sense常识;The American Crisis美国危机 Thomas Jefferson(在其主持领导下,通过了独立宣言) The Declaration of Independence独立宣言 Part 3.Romanticism (stretches from the end of the eighteenth century through the outbreak of the civil war) 早期浪漫主义作家①Washington Irving华盛顿?欧文幽默大师、散文大师 A History of New York纽约外史——美国人写的第一部诙谐文学杰作;The Sketch Book见闻札记;Rip Van Wrinkle瑞普·凡·温克尔;The Legend of Sleepy Hollow睡谷的传说——使之成为美国第一个获得国际声誉的作家 ②James Fenimore Cooper詹姆斯?费尼莫尔?库珀(关注西进运动) Leatherstocking Tales皮袜子故事集(5部长篇小说:The Deerslayer杀鹿人; The Last of Mohicans最后的莫希干人; The Pathfinder探路者; The Pioneer拓荒者; The Prairie平原) ③William Cullen Bryant布莱恩特 Thanatopsis死亡随想;To a Waterfowl;致水鸟(被Matthew Arnold誉为英国语言中最完美的一首短诗) Transcendentalis m①oversoul超灵②believe firmly in democracy, and insisted on an intense individualism③nature Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the 1830s and 1840s in the New England region of the United States as a protest to the general state of culture and society. ①They believe the inherent goodness of both man and nature. ②They believe that society and its institutions ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual.③They believe that man is at his best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community could be formed.

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