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2018年12月英语六级真题及答案三套完整版

2018年12月英语六级真题及答案三套完整版
2018年12月英语六级真题及答案三套完整版

2018年12月英语六级真题及答案三套完整版

2018年12月英语六级考试真题试卷附答案(完整版第1套)

Part I Writing(30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an e ssay on how to balance workand leisure. You should write at least 1 50 words but no more than 200 words.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

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How to Balance Work and Leisure

Just as the old saying goes, "All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy", which illustrates the importance and necessity of keeping a balance between work and leisure. However, in today's fast-paced work culture, it's difficult for most people to successfully maintain a good balance between the two.

As for me, some tips can contribute to achieving the balance. First of all, you should develop efficient working habits, because only in this way can you squeeze out some leisure time. It requires you to devote your full attention to the task at hand and complete daily work efficiently. Second, in order to relieve the fatigue and stress, it's vital to schedule one thing that you are interested in each day and set aside some time for relaxation. Last but not least, for those workaholics, please keep in mind that if you work hard, you shouldn't feel guilty when you spend time on personal leisure, for entertainment is also a part of life.

To conclude, work and leisure complement each other, so when you get tired and bored with your daily grind, try to take some time off work to relax yourself.

Part II Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)

Section A

Directions:In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 1 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

1. A) It can benefit professionals and non-professionals alike.

B) It lists the various challenges physicists arc confronting.

C) It describes how some mysteries of physics were solved.

D) It is one of the most fascinating physics books ever written.

2. A)physicists' contribution to humanity.

B) Stories about some female physicists.

C) Historical evolution of modern physics.

D) Women's changing attitudes to physics.

3. A) By exposing a lot of myths in physics.

B) By describing her own life experiences.

C) By including lots of fascinating knowledge.

D) By telling anecdotes about famous professors.

4. A) It avoids detailing abstract concepts of physics.

B) It contains a lot of thought-provoking questions.

C) It demonstrates how they can become physicists.

D) It provides experiments they can do themselves.

Questions 5 to 8 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

5. A) He is too busy to finish his assignment in time.

B) He does not know what kind of topic to write on.

C) He does not understand the professor's instructions.

D) He has no idea how to proceed with his dissertation论文、专题、学术演讲.

6. A) It is too broad宽的、宽阔的.

B) It is a bit outdated过时的、落伍的.

C) It is challenging.

D) It is interesting.

7. A) Biography传记、档案.

B) Nature.

C) Philosophy哲学.

D)Beauty.

8. A)Improve his cumulative grade.

B) Develop his reading ability.

C) Stick to坚持、忠于、信守 the topic assigned.

D) List the parameters first.

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear two passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C and D. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 9 to 11 are based on the passage you have just heard.

9. A) The unprecedented空前的、史无前例的 high temperature高温 in Greenland.

B) The collapse of ice on the northern tip of Greenland.

C) The unusual cold spell in the Arctic area in October.

D) The rapid change of Arctic temperature within a day.

10. A) It has created a totally new climate pattern.

B) It will pose a serious threat to many species.

C) It typically appears about once every ten years.

D) It has puzzled the climate scientists for decades.

11. A) Extinction of Arctic wildlife.

B) Iceless summers in the Arctic.

C) Emigration of indigenous people.

D) Better understanding of ecosystems.

Questions 12 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

12. A) A good start.

B) A detailed plan.

C) A strong determination.

D) A scientific approach.

13. A) Most people get energized after a sufficient rest.

B) Most people tend to have a finite source of energy.

C) It is vital to take breaks between demanding mental tasks.

D) It is most important to have confidence in one's willpower意志力、毅力.

14. A) They could keep on继续、连续不断 working longer.

B) They could do more challenging tasks.

C) They found it easier to focus on work at hand.

D) They held more positive attitudes toward life.

15. A) They are part of their nature.

B) They are subject to受制于、服从 change.

C) They are related to culture.

D) They are beyond control.

Section C

Directions: In this section, you will hear three recordings of lectures or talks followed by three or four questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C and D. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the recording you have just heard.

16. A) About half of current jobs might be automated.

B) The jobs of doctors and lawyers would be threatened.

C) The job market is becoming somewhat unpredictable.

D) Machine learning would prove disruptive by 2013.

17. A) They are widely applicable for massive open online courses.

B) They are now being used by numerous high school teachers.

C) They could read as many as 10, 000 essays in a single minute.

D) They could grade评级、评分 high-school essays just like human teachers

18. A) It needs instructions throughout the process.

B) It does poorly on frequent, high-volume tasks.

C) It has to rely on huge amounts of previous以前的、先前的 data.

D) It is slow when it comes to tracking novel things.

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the recording you have just heard.

19. A) The engineering problems with solar power.

B) The generation of steam with the latest technology.

C) The importance of exploring new energy sources.

D) The theoretical aspects of sustainable energy可持续能源、可再生能源.

20. A) Drive trains with solar energy太阳能.

B) Upgrade the city's train facilities.

C) Build a new ten-kilometre railway line.

D) Cut down the city's energy consumption

21. A) Build a tank for keeping calcium oxide.

B) Find a new material for storing储存、存储 energy.

C) Recover super-heated steam.

D) Collect carbon dioxide gas.

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.

22. A) The lack of supervision by both the national and local governments.

B) The impact of the current economic crisis at home and abroad.

C) The poor management of day centres and home help services.

D) The poor relation between national health and social care services.

23. A) It was mainly provided by voluntary services.

B) It mainly caters to the needs of the privileged.

C) It called for a sufficient number of volunteers.

D) It has deteriorated over the past sixty years.

24. A) Their longer lifespans.

B) Fewer home helpers available.

C) Their preference for private services.

D) More of them suffering serious illnesses.

25. A) They are unable to pay for health services.

B) They have long been discriminated辨别 against.

C) They are vulnerable to illnesses and diseases.

D) They have contributed a great deal to society.

Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

Section A

Directions:In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Just off the coast of Southern California sits Santa Cruz Island, where a magical creature called the island fox _F_26_dwells_. A decade ago, this island's ecosystem 生态系统 was in _B_27_chaos混乱的_ Wild pigs attracted golden eagles from the mainland, and those flying _L_28_predators捕食者、食肉动物_ crashed the fox population. So the Nature Conservancy launched a _H_29_fierce凶猛、凶狠_ war against the pigs, complete with helicopters直升机 and sharp shooters.

And it worked. Today, federal agencies are pulling the island fox from the Endangered Species List. It's the fastest-ever recovery of a mammal哺乳动物, joining peers 同龄人、同事 like the Louisiana black bear as glowing successes in the history of the Endangered濒临灭绝的 Species Act.

But the recovery of Santa Cruz Island isn't just about the fox. The Nature Conservancy 保护、管理 has _D_30_declared_ war on a multitude of大量、一大批 invasive入侵的、侵略性的 species here, from sheep to plants to the _A_31_aggressive侵略性的、好斗的、有进取心的_ Argentine ant阿根廷蚂蚁."Our philosophy with the island has always been, 'OK, _M_32_remove _ the threats and let the island go back to what it was," says ecologist Christina Boser. And it appears to be working. Native plants are coining back, and the fox once again bounds about carefree.

But keeping those foxes from harm will occupy Boser and her colleagues for years to come. You see, humans are still allowed on Santa Cruz Island, and they bring dogs. So Boser has to vaccinate her foxes against various diseases. "We're obligated to keep a pulse on the population for at least five years after the foxes are delisted," says Boser. That includes tagging标记、标签 the foxes and _K_33_monitoring监视、监测_ their numbers to ensure nothing goes wrong.

This is the story of the little fox that has come back, and the people who have _E_34_dedicated奉献_ their lives to protecting it. This is the story of wildlife 野生动植物 conservation保护、保存、保持 in the age of mass _G_35_extinction灭绝、消灭_.

A) aggressive B) chaos C) configuration D) declared E) dedicated F) dwells G) extinction H) fierce I) hinders J) mammal K) monitoring L) predators M) remove N) tempt O) underlying

Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Do Parents Invade Children's Privacy When They Post Photos Online?

A) When Katlyn Burbidge's son was 6 years old, he was performing some ridiculous song and dance typical of a first-grader. But after she snapped a photo and started using her phone, he asked her a serious question: "Are you going to post that online?"

She laughed and answered, "Yes, I think I will." What he said next stopped her. "Can you not?"

B) That's when it dawned on her: She had been posting photos of him online without asking his permission. "We're big advocates of bodily autonomy and not forcing him to hug or kiss people unless he wants to, but it never occurred to me that I should ask his permission to post photos of him online," says Burbidge, a mom of two in Wakefield, Massachusetts. "Now when I post a photo of him online, I show him the photo and get his okay. "

C) When her 8-month-old is 3 or 4 years old, she plans to start asking him in an age-appropriate way, "Do you want other people to see this?" That’s precisely the approach that two researchers advocated before a room of pediatricians (儿科医生)last week at the American Academy of Pediatrics meeting, when they discussed the 21st century challenge of "sharenting", a new term for parents' online sharing about their children. "As advocates of children's rights, we believe that children should have a voice about what information is shared about them if possible", says Stacey Steinberg, a legal skills professor at the University of Florida Levin College of Law in Gainesville.

D) Whether it's ensuring that your child isn't bullied over something you post, that their identity isn't digitally "kidnapped", or that their photos don't end up on a half dozen child pornography (色情) sites, as one Australian mom discovered, parents and pediatricians are increasingly aware of the importance of protecting children's digital presence. Steinberg and Bahareh Keith, an assistant professor of pediatrics at the University of Florida College of Medicine, say most children will likely never experience problems related to what their parents share, but a tension still exists between parents' rights to share their experiences and their children's rights to privacy.

E) "We're in no way trying to silence parents, voices," Steinberg says. "At the same time, we recognize that children might have an interest in entering adulthood free to create their own digital footprint. "They cited a study presented earlier this year of 249 pairs of parents and their children in which twice as many children as parents wanted rules on what par ents could share. "The parents said, ‘We don't need rules-we're fine,’ and the children said, ‘Our parents need rules,’ Keith says. "The children wanted autonomy about this issue and were worried about their parents sharing information about them. "

F) Although the American Academy of Pediatrics offers guidelines recommending that parents model appropriate social media use for their children, it does not explicitly discuss oversharing by parents. "I think this is a very legitimate concern, and I appreciate their drawing our attention to it", David Hill, a father of five, says. He sees a role for pediatricians to talk with parents about this,but believes the messaging must extend far beyond pediatricians, offices. "I look forward to seeing researchers expand our understanding of the issue so we can translate it into effective education and policy," he says.

G) There's been little research on the topic, Steinberg wrote in a law article about this issue. While states could pass laws related to sharing information about children online, Steinberg feels parents themselves are generally best suited to make these decisions for their families. "While we didn't want to create any unnecessary panic, we did find some concerns that were troublesome, and we thought that parents or at least physicians should be aware of those potential risks," Steinberg says. They include photos repurposed for inappropriate or illegal means, identity theft, embarrassment, bullying by peers or digital kidnapping.

H) But that's the negative side, with risks that must be balanced against the benefits of sharing. Steinberg pointed out that parental sharing on social media helps build communities, connect spread-out families, provide support and raise awareness around important social issues for which parents might be their children's only voice.

I) A C. S. Mott survey found among the 56 percent of mothers and 34 percent of fathers who discussed parenting on social media, 72 percent of them said sharing made them feel less alone, and nearly as many said sharing helped them worry less and gave them advice from other parents. The most common topics they discussed included kids' sleep, nutrition, discipline, behavior problems and day care and preschool.

J) "There's this peer-to-peer nature of health care these days with a profound opportunity for parents to learn helpful tips, safety and prevention efforts, pro-vaccine messages and all kinds of other messages from other parents in their social communities", says Wendy Sue Swanson, a pediatrician and executive director of digital health at Seattle Children’s Hospital, where she blogs about her own parenting journey to help other parents. "They're getting nurtured by people they've already selected that they trust." she says.

K) "How do we weigh the risks, how do we think about the benefits, and how do we alleviate the risks?" she says. "Those are the questions we need to ask ourselves, and everyone can have a different answer."

L) Some parents find the best route for them is not to share at all. Bridget O'Hanlon and her husband, who live in Cleveland, decided before their daughter was born that they would not post her photos online. When a few family members did post pictures, O'Hanlon and her husband made their wishes clear. "It's been hard not to share pictures of her because people always want to know how babies and toddlers (学走路的孩子)are doing and to see pictures, but we made the decision to have social media while she did not," O'Hanlon said. Similarly, Alison Jamison of New York decided with her husband that their child had a right to their own online identity. They did use an invitation-only photo sharing platform so that friends and family, including those far away, could see the photos, but they stood firm, simply refusing to put their child's photos on other social media platforms.

M) "For most families, it's a journey. Sometimes it goes wrong, but most of the time it doesn't, " says Swanson, who recommends starting to ask children permission to post narratives or photos around ages 6 to 8. "We'll learn more and more what our

tolerance is. We can ask our kids to help us learn as a society what's okay and what's not. "

N) Indeed, that learning process goes both ways. Bria Dunham, a mother in Somerville, Massachusetts, was so excited to watch a moment of brotherly bonding while her first-grader and baby took a bath together that she snapped a few photos. But when she considered posting them online, she took the perspective of her son: How would he feel if his classmates, parents saw photos of him chest-up in the bathtub? "It made me think about how I'm teaching him to have ownership of his own body and how what is shared today endures into the future," Dunham says. "So I kept the pictures to myself and accepted this as one more step in supporting his increasing autonomy. "

36. Steinberg argued parental sharing online can be beneficial. H

37. According to an expert, when children reach school age, they can help their parents learn what can and cannot be done. M

38. One mother refrained from posting her son’s photos online when she considered the matter from her son's perspective. N

39. According to a study, more children than parents think there should be rules on parents' sharing. E

40. Katlyn Burbidge had never realized she had to ask her son's approval to put his photos online. B

41. A mother decided not to post her son's photo online when he asked her not to. A

42. A woman pediatrician tries to help other parents by sharing her own parenting experience. J

43. There are people who decide simply not to share their children's photos online. L

44. Parents and physicians should realize sharing information online about children may involve risks. G

45. Parents who share their parenting experiences may find themselves intruding into their children's privacy.D

Section C

Directions:There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

Perhaps it is time for farmers to put their feet up now that robots are used to inspect crops, dig up weeds, and even have become shepherds, too. Commercial growing fields are astronomically huge and take thousands of man-hours to operate. One prime example is one of Australia's most isolated cattle stations, Suplejack Downs in the Northern Territory, extending across 4,000 square kilometers, taking over 13 hours to reach by car from the nearest major town—Alice Springs.

The extreme isolation of these massive farms leaves them often unattended, and monitored only once or twice a year, which means if the livestock falls ill or requires assistance, it can be a long time for farmers to discover.

However, robots are coming to the rescue.

Robots are currently under a two-year trial in Wales which will train 'farmbots' to herd, monitor the health of livestock, and make sure there is enough pasture for them to graze on. The robots are equipped with many sensors to identify conditions of the environment, cattle and food, using thermal and vision sensors that detect changes in body temperature.

"You've also got color, texture and shape sensors looking down at the ground to check pasture quality," says Salah Sukkarieh of the University of Sydney, who will carry out trials on several farms in central New South Wales.

During the trials, the robot algorithms (算法) and mechanics will be fine-tuned to make it better suited to ailing livestock and ensure it safely navigates around potential hazards including trees, mud, swamps, and hills.

"We want to improve the quality of animal health and make it easier for farmers to maintain large landscapes where animals roam free," says Sukkarieh.

The robots are not limited to herding and monitoring livestock. They have been created to count individual fruit, inspect crops, and even pull weeds.

Many robots are equipped with high-tech sensors and complex learning algorithms to avoid injuring humans as they work side by side. The robots also learn the most efficient and safest passages, and allow engineers and farmers to analyze and better optimize the attributes and tasks of the robot, as well as provide a live stream giving real-time feedback on exactly what is happening on the farms.

Of course, some worry lies in replacing agricultural workers. However, it is fanners that are pushing for the advancements due to ever-increasing labor vacancies, making it difficult to maintain large-scale operations.

The robots have provided major benefits to farmers in various ways, from hunting and pulling weeds to monitoring the condition of every single fruit. Future farms will likely experience a greater deal of autonomy as robots take up more and more farm work efficiently.

46. What may farmers be able to do with robots appearing on the farming scene?

A) Upgrade farm produce.

B) Enjoy more leisure hours.

C) Modify the genes of crops.

D) Cut down farming costs.

47. What will 'farmbots' be expected to do?

A) Take up many of the farmers, routines.

B) Provide medical treatments for livestock.

C) Lead the trend in farming the world over.

D) Improve the quality of pastures for grazing.

48. What can robots do when equipped with high-tech sensors and complex learning algorithms学习算法?

A) Help farmers choose the most efficient and safest passages.

B) Help farmers simplify their farming tasks and management.

C) Allow farmers to learn instantly what is occurring发生 on the farm.

D) Allow farmers to give them real-time instructions on what to do.

49. Why are farmers pressing for robotic farming?

A) Farming costs are fast increasing.

B) Robotics technology is maturing.

C) Robotic fanning is the trend.

D) Labor shortage is worsening.

50. What does the author think future farms will be like?

A) More and more automated.

B) More and more productive.

C) Larger and larger in scale.

D) Better and better in condition.

Passage Two

Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

The public must be able to understand the basics of science to make informed decisions. Perhaps the most dramatic example of the negative consequences of poor communication between scientists and the public is the issue of climate change, where a variety of factors, not the least of which is a breakdown in the transmission of fundamental climate data to the general public, has contributed to widespread mistrust and misunderstanding of scientists and their research.

The issue of climate change also illustrates how the public acceptance and understanding of science (or the lack of it) can influence governmental

decision-making with regard to regulation, science policy and research funding.

However, the importance of effective communication with a general audience is not limited to hot issues like climate change. It is also critical for socially charged neuroscience issues such as the genetic basis for a particular behavior, the therapeutic potential of stem cell therapy for neurodegenerative diseases, or the use of animal models, areas where the public understanding of science can also influence policy and funding decisions. Furthermore, with continuing advances in individual genome (基因组) sequencing and the advent of personalized medicine, more non-scientists will need to be comfortable analyzing complex scientific information to make decisions that directly affect their quality of life.

Science journalism is the main channel for the popularization of scientific information among the public. Much has been written about how the relationship between scientists and the media can shape the efficient transmission of scientific

advances to the public. Good science journalists are specialists in making complex topics accessible to a general audience, while adhering to scientific accuracy.

Unfortunately, pieces of science journalism can also oversimplify and generalize their subject material to the point that the basic information conveyed is obscured or at worst, obviously wrong. The impact of a basic discovery on human health can be exaggerated so that the public thinks a miraculous cure is a few months to years away when in reality the significance of the study is far more limited.

Even though scientists play a part in transmitting information to journalists and ultimately the public, too often the blame for ineffective communication is placed on the side of the journalists. We believe, that at least part of the problem lies in places other than the interaction between scientists and members of the media, and exists because for one thing we underestimate how difficult it is for scientists to communicate effectively with a diversity of audiences, and for another most scientists do not receive formal training in science communication.

51. What does the example of climate change serve to show?

A) The importance of climate data is increasingly recognized.

B) Adequate government funding is vital to scientific research.

C) Government regulation helps the public understand science.

D) Common folks'家庭的、人们的 scientific knowledge can sway影响、动摇 policy making.

52. What should non-scientists do to ensure their quality of life?

A) Seek personalized medical assistance from doctors.

B) Acquire a basic understanding of medical science.

C) Have their individual genome sequenced.

D) Make informed use of animal models.

53. Why is it important for scientists to build a good relationship with the media?

A) It helps them to effectively popularize普及、推广 new scientific information.

B) It enables the public to develop a positive attitude toward science.

C) It helps them to establish a more positive public image.

D) It enables them to apply their findings to public health.

54. What does the author say is the problem with science journalism?

A) It is keen on transmitting sensational information.

B) It tends to oversimplify people's health problems.

C) It may give inaccurate不精确的、错误的 or distorted歪曲的、扭曲的 information to the public.

D) It may provide information open to different interpretations.

55. What should scientists do to impart their latest findings to the public more effectively?

A) Give training to science journalists.

B) Stimulate public interest in science.

C) Seek timely assistance from the media.

D) Improve their communication skills.

Part IV Translation (30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.

近年来,中国越来越多的博物馆免费向公众开放。博物馆展览次数和参观人数都明显增长。在一些广受欢迎的博物馆门前,排长队已很常见。这些博物馆必须采取措施限制参观人数。如今,展览形式越来越多样。一些大型博物馆利用多媒体和虚拟现实等先进技术,使展览更具吸引力。不少博物馆还举办在线展览,人们可在网上观赏珍稀展品。然而,现场观看展品的体验对大多数参观者还是更具吸引力。

In recent years, more and more museums in China have been open to the public free of charge. The number of museum exhibitions and visi tors to the museum has seen an obvious increase. It has become very common to see that people stand in long queues队列、排队in front of some widely popular museums. Therefore, these museums m ust take measures to restrict the number ofvisitors. Nowadays, the fo rms of exhibitions become increasingly diverse. Some largemuseums use advanced technologies such as multimedia and virtual reality to make theirexhibitions more attractive. Quite a few museums also hold online exhibitions where peoplecan enjoy the sight of rare and precious ex hibits. However, the experience of viewing theexhibits on site is sti ll more appealing吸引人的、有吸引力的to most visitors.

2018年12月英语六级考试真题及答案(完整版第2套)

Part I Writing (30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay on how to balance job responsibilities and personal interests. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How to Balance Job Responsibilities and Personal Interests

In today's highly competitive environment, the heavy workload makes people out of breath and leaves them no time for their hobbies. Therefore, learning to balance job responsibilities and personal interests is of great significance for modern people. Here are some suggestions which can help us achieve the balance. In the first place, we should be aware that although work duties are our first priority, it doesn't mean that we cannot explore personal interests. Secondly, it's important to realize that beneficial activities off work help us get relaxed. We can transfer our focus from busy work by reading an interesting book or listening to music, thereby getting our intense nerves calm down. What's more, find enough time to develop our hobbies by finishing the task on time. We should arrange our time reasonably and complete

our daily work efficiently, which will give us more freedom to allocate time to pursue personal interests.

In sum, it is absolutely do-able to strike a balance between full-time work and personal hobbies as long as we realize the benefit of cultivating培养 interests and the importance of reasonable time arrangement.

Part II Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)

Section A

Directions:In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 1 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

1. A) Stop worrying about him.

B) Keep away from the statue.

C) Take a picture拍照、照相 of him.

D) Pat on a smile for the photo.

2. A) Gaining great fame名声、名望 on the Internet.

B) Publishing a collection of his photos.

C) Collecting the best photos in the world.

D) Becoming a professional photographer.

3. A) Surfing various websites and collecting photos.

B) Editing his pictures and posting them online.

C) Following similar accounts to compare notes.

D) Studying the pictures in popular social media.

4. A) They are far from satisfactory.

B) They are mostly taken by her mom.

C) They make an impressive album.

D) They record her fond memories.

Questions 5 to 8 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

5. A) A journal reporting the latest progress in physics.

B) An introductory course of modem physics.

C) An occasion for physicists to exchange ideas.

D) A series of interviews with outstanding physicists.

6. A) The future of the physical world.

B) The origin of the universe.

C) Sources of radiation.

D) Particle theory.

7. A) How matter collides with anti-matter.

B) Whether the universe will turn barren.

C) Why there exists anti-matter.

D) Why there is a universe at all

8. A) Matter and anti-matter are opposites of each other.

B) Anti-matter allowed humans to come into existence.

C) The universe formed due to a sufficient amount of matter.

D) Anti-matter exists in very high-temperature environments.

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear two passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C and D. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 9 to 11 are based on the passage you have just heard.

9. A) She found herself speaking a foreign language.

B) She woke up speaking with a different accent.

C) She found some symptoms of her illness gone.

D) She woke up finding herself in another country.

10. A) It is usually caused by a stroke中风、行程 or brain injury脑损伤.

B) It has not yet found any effective treatment.

C) It leaves the patient with a distorted memory.

D) It often happens to people with speech defects.

11. A) British.

B) Irish.

C) Russian.

D) Australian.

Questions 12 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.

12. A) Water sports.

B) Racing in rivers.

C) Stories about women swimmers.

D) Books about swimming.

13. A) She succeeded in swimming across the English Channel.

B) She published a guide to London's best swimming spots.

C) She told her story of adventures to some young swimmers.

D) She wrote a book about the history of swimwear in the UK.

14. A) They loved vacationing on the seashore.

B) They had a unique notion of modesty.

C) They were prohibited from swimming.

D) They were fully dressed when swimming.

15. A) She designed lots of appropriate swimwear for women.

B) She once successfully competed against men in swimming.

C) She was the first woman to swim across the English Channel英吉利海峡.

D) She was an advocate of women's right to swim in public pools.

Section C

Directions: In this section, you will hear three recordings of lectures or talks followed by three or four questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, C and D. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the recording you have just heard.

16. A) Build a machine that can detect侦查、发现 lies谎言.

B) Develop a magnetic brain scanner.

C) Test the credibility of court evidence.

D) Win people's complete trust in them.

17. A) They are optimistic about its potential.

B) They are sceptical of its reliability.

C) They think it is but business promotion.

D) They celebrate it with great enthusiasm.

18. A) It is not to be trusted at all.

B) It does not sound economical.

C) It may intrude into people's privacy.

D) It may lead to overuse in court trials.

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the recording you have just heard.

19. A) Most of its residents speak several languages.

B) Some of its indigenous languages are dying out.

C) Each village there speaks a totally different language.

D) Its languages have interested researchers the world over.

20. A) They are spread randomly across the world.

B) Some are more difficult to learn than others.

C) More are found in tropical热带的 regions than in the mild温和 zones.

D) They enrich and impact each other in more ways than one.

21. A) They used different methods to collect and analyze data.

B) They identified distinct patterns of language distribution.

C) Their conclusions do not correspond to their original hypotheses.

D) There is no conclusive决定性的 account说明、解释 for the cause of language diversity多样性、多元化.

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.

22. A) Its middle-class中层阶级、中等的 is disappearing消失.

B) Its wealth is rationally distributed.

C) Its population is rapidly growing.

D) Its cherished dream is coming true.

23. A) Success was but a dream without conscientious effort.

B) They could realize their dreams through hard work.

C) A few dollars could go a long way.

D) Wealth was shared by all citizens.

24. A) Better working conditions.

B) Better-paying jobs.

C) High social status.

D) Full employment.

25. A) Reduce the administrative costs.

B) Adopt effective business models.

C) Hire part-time employees only.

D) Make use of the latest technology.

Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

Section A

Directions:In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

Surfing the Internet during class doesn't just steal focus from the educator;it also hurts students who're already struggling to _F_26_grasp_ the material. A new study from Michigan State University, though, argues that all students—including high achievers—see a decline in performance when they browse the Internet during class for non-academic purposes.

To measure the effects of Internet-based distractions during class, researchers _C_27_evaluated_ 500 students taking an introductory psychology class at Michigan State University. Researchers used ACT scores as a measure of intellectual

_A_28_aptitude (天才、天资)_ Because previous research has shown that people with high intellectual abilities are better at _E_29_filtering_ out distractions, researchers believed students with high ACT scores would not show a

_M_30_significant_ decrease in performance due to their use of digital devices. But students who surfed the web during class did worse on their exams regardless of their ACT scores, suggesting that even the academically smartest students are harmed when they're distracted in class.

College professors are increasingly _K_31_raising_ alarm bells about the effects smartphones, laptops, and tablets have on academic performance. One 2013 study of college students found that 80% of students use their phones or laptops during class, with the average student checking their digital device 11 times in a _O_32_typical_ class. A quarter of students report that their use of digital devices during class causes their grades to _N_33_suffer_.

Professors sometimes implement policies designed to _H_34_minimize_ students' use of digital devices, and world where people are increasingly some instructors even confiscate (没收)tablets and phones. In dependent on their phones, though, such strategies often fail. One international study found that 84% of people say they couldn't go a day without their smartphones. Until students are able to _L_35_resist

抵抗、抗拒_ the pull of social networking, texting, and endlessly surfing the web, they may continue to straggle in their classes.

A) aptitude B) eradication C) evaluated D) evaporated E) filtering F) grasp G) legacy H) minimize I) obscure J) obsess K) raising L) resist M) significant N) suffer O) typical

Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

A Pioneering Woman of Science Re-Emerges after 300 Years

A) Maria Sibylla Merian, like many European women of the 17th century, stayed busy managing a household and rearing children. But on top of that, Merian, a German-born woman who lived in the Netherlands, also managed a successful career as an artist, botanist, naturalist and entomologist (昆虫学家).

B) "She was a scientist on the level with a lot of people we spend a lot of time talking about," said Kay Etheridge, a biologist at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania who has been studying the scientific history of Merian's work. "She didn't do as much to change biology as Charles Darwin, but she was significant. "

C) At a time when natural history was a valuable tool for discovery, Merian discovered facts about plants and insects that were not previously known. Her observations helped dismiss the popular belief that insects spontaneously emerged from mud. The knowledge she collected over decades didn't just satisfy those curious about nature, but also provided valuable insights into medicine and science. She was the first to bring together insects and their habitats, including food they ate, into a single ecological composition.

D) After years of pleasing a fascinated audience across Europe with books of detailed descriptions and life-size paintings of familiar insects, in 1699 she sailed with her daughter nearly 5, 000 miles from the Netherlands to South America to study insects in the jungles of what is now known as Suriname. She was 52 years old. The result was her masterpiece, Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamensium.

E) In her work, she revealed a side of nature so exotic, dramatic and valuable to Europeans of the time that she received much acclaim. But a century later, her findings came under scientific criticism. Shoddy(粗糙的)reproductions of her work along with setbacks to women's roles in 18th- and 19th- century Europe resulted in her efforts being largely forgotten. "It was kind of stunning when she sort of dropped off into oblivion(遗忘)," said Dr. Etheridge. "Victorians started putting women in a box, and they're still trying to crawl out of it."

F) Today, the pioneering woman of the sciences has re-emerged. In recent years, feminists,historians and artists have all praised Merian's tenacity(坚韧), talent and inspirational artistic compositions. And now biologists like Dr. Etheridge are digging into the scientific texts that accompanied her art. Three hundred years after her death, Merian will be celebrated at an international symposium in Amsterdam this June.

G) And last month, Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamensium was republished. It contains 60 plates (插图)and original descriptions, along with stories about Merian's life and updated scientific descriptions. Before writing Metamorphosis, Merian spent decades documenting European plants and insects that she published in a series of books. She began in her 20s, making textless, decorative paintings of flowers with insects. "Then she got really serious," Dr. Etheridge said. Merian started raising insects at home, mostly butterflies and caterpillars. "She would sit up all night until they came out of the pupa (桶)so she could draw them," she said.

H) The results of her decades' worth of careful observations were detailed paintings and descriptions of European insects, followed by unconventional visuals and stories of insects and animals from a land that most at the time could only imagine. It's possible Merian used a magnifying glass to capture the detail of the split tongues of sphinx moths (斯芬克斯飞蛾)depicted in the painting. She wrote that the two tongues combine to form one tube for drinking nectar (花蜜). Some criticized this detail later, saying there was just one tongue, but Merian wasn't wrong. She may have observed the adult moth just as it emerged from its pupa. For a brief moment during that stage of its life cycle, the tongue consists of two tiny half-tubes before merging into one.

I) It may not have been ladylike to depict a giant spider devouring a hummingbird, but when Merian did it at the turn of the 18th century, surprisingly, nobody objected. Dr. Etheridge called it revolutionary. The image, which also contained novel descriptions of ants, fascinated a European audience that was more concerned with the exotic story unfolding before them than the gender of the person who painted it.

J) "All of these things shook up their nice, neat little view," Dr. Etheridge said. But later, people of the Victorian era thought differently. Her work had been reproduced, sometimes incorrectly. A few observations were deemed impossible. "She'd been called a silly woman for saying that a spider could eat a bird," Dr. Etheridge said. But Henry Walter Bates, a friend of Charles Darwin, observed it and put it in book in 1863, proving Merian was correct.

K) In the same plate, Merian depicted and described leaf-cutter ants for the first time. "In America there are large ants which can eat whole trees bare as a broom handle in a single night, she wrote in the description. Merian noted how the ants took the leaves below ground to their young. And she wouldn't have known this at

the time, but the ants use the leaves to farm fungi (菌类)underground to feed their developing babies.

L) Merian was correct about the giant bird-eating spiders, ants building bridges with their bodies and other details. But in the same drawing, she incorrectly lumped together army and leaf-cutter ants. And instead of showing just the typical pair of eggs in a hummingbird nest, she painted four. She made other mistakes in Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamensium as well: not every caterpillar and butterfly matched.

M) Perhaps one explanation for her mistakes is that she cut short her Suriname trip after getting sick, and completed the book at home in Amsterdam. And errors are common among some of history's most- celebrated scientific minds, too. "These errors no more invalidate Ms. Merian's work than do well- known misconceptions published by Charles Darwin or Isaac Newton, " Dr. Etheridge wrote in a paper that argued that too many have wrongly focused on the mistakes of her work.

N) Merian's paintings inspired artists and ecologists. In an 1801 drawing from his book, General Zoology Amphibia, George Shaw, an English botanist and zoologist, credited Merian for describing a frog in the account of her South American expedition, and named the young tree frog after her in his portrayal of it. It wouldn't be fair to give Merian all the credit. She received assistance naming plants, making sketches and referencing the work of others. Her daughters helped her color her drawings.

O) Merian also made note of the help she received from the natives of Suriname, as well as slaves or servants that assisted her. In some instances she wrote moving passages that included her helpers in descriptions. As she wrote in her description of the peacock flower, "The Indians, who are not treated well by their Dutch masters, use the seeds to abort their children, so that they will not become slaves like themselves. The black slaves from Guinea and Angola have demanded to be well treated, threatening to refuse to have children. In fact, they sometimes take their own lives because they are treated so badly, and because they believe they will be born again, free and living in their own land. They told me this themselves. "

P) Londa Schiebinger, a professor of the history of science at Stanford University, called this passage rather astonishing. It's particularly striking centuries later when these issues are still prominent in public discussions about social justice and women's rights. "She was ahead of her time," Dr. Etheridge said.

36. Merian was the first scientist to study a type of American ant. K

37. The European audience was more interested in Merian's drawings than her gender.I

38. Merian's masterpiece came under attack a century after its publication.E

39. Merian's mistakes in her drawings may be attributed to her shortened stay in South America.M

40. Merian often sat up the whole night through to observe and draw insects.G

41. Merian acknowledged the help she got from natives of South America.O

42. Merian contributed greatly to people's better understanding of medicine and science.C

43. Merian occasionally made mistakes in her drawings of insects and birds.L

44. Now, Merian's role as a female forerunner in sciences has been re-established.F

45. Merian made a long voyage to South America to study jungle insects over three centuries ago.D

Section C

Directions:There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

While human achievements in mathematics continue to reach new levels of complexity, many of us who aren't mathematicians at heart (or engineers by trade) may struggle to remember the last time we used calculus (微积分).

It's a fact not lost on American educators, who amid rising math failure rates are debating how math can better meet the real-life needs of students. Should we change the way math is taught in schools, or eliminate some courses entirely?

Andrew Hacker, Queens College political science professor, thinks that advanced algebra and other higher-level math should be cut from curricula in favor of courses with more routine usefulness, like statistics.

"We hear on all sides that we're not teaching enough mathematics, and the Chinese are running rings around us," Hacker says. "I'm suggesting we're teaching too much mathematics to too many people. . . not everybody has to know calculus. If you're going to become an aeronautical (航空的)engineer, fine. But most of us aren't."

Instead, Hacker is pushing for more courses like the one he teaches at Queens College:Numeracy 101. There, his students of "citizen statistics" learn to analyze public information like the federal budget and corporate reports. Such courses, Hacker argues, are a remedy for the numerical illiteracy of adults who have completed high-level math like algebra but are unable to calculate the price of, say, a carpet by area.

Hacker's argument has met with opposition from other math educators who say what's needed is to help students develop a better relationship with math earlier, rather than teaching them less math altogether.

Maria Droujkova is a founder of Natural Math, and has taught basic calculus concepts to 5-year-olds. For Droujkova, high-level math is important, and what it could use in American classrooms is an injection of childlike wonder.

"Make mathematics more available," Droujkova says. "Redesign it so it's more accessible to more kinds of people: young children, adults who worry about it, adults who may have had bad experiences. "

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