The test finished, we began our holiday.
= When the test was finished, we began our holiday.
The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
= After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.
This done, we went home.
The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier.
He came into the room, his ears red with cold.
He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.
a.在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。
She said (that) she had never been to Paris.
When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.
c. 表示意向的动词，如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等，用过去完成时表示"原本…，未能…"
We had hoped that you would come, but you didn t.
3)过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。
He said that he had learned some English before.
By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.
Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.
The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office.
A. had written, left B，were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left
注意：had no sooner… than刚…… 就……
He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.
1、It was in that small room_____ they worked hard and dreamed of better days to come.
B. in which
C. which d. that
2、It is because she is very devoted to her students _______she is respected by them.
3、It was not until she arrived in class _________realized she had forgotten her book.
A. and she
D. that she
1、Mr. Green _____ my letter, otherwise he would have replied before now.
A. must have received
B. must have failed to receive
C. must receive
D. must fail to receive
2、I believe he _____ an accident, otherwise he would have arrived on time.
A. would have had
B. could have had
C. should have had
D. must have had
二、should （ought to ）+完成时表示应该做的事情而没有做，否定式表示不该做的事情做了。含有对过去的动作的责备、批评。
1、They have done things they ought _____.
A. not to do
B. not to be done
C. not to have done
D. not having done
2、I’m sorry I couldn’t get in touch with him before he left, I _____ him earlier.
A. had a telephone
B. have phoned
C. should have phoned
D. should be phoned
1、He could have joined us, but he didn’t get our invitation in time.
2、I could have passed, but I did not study hard enough.
虚拟语气的基本形式和用法；if的省略形式；含蓄条件句；以wish（that）引导的表示“愿望”的宾语从句；would rather 引导的从句；以as if, as though 引导的从句；以suggest, advise, insist 等词后引导的宾语从句；It is necessary（important）that引导的主语从句；It is time （that）…句型中。
1、I would ask George to lend us the money if I _____ him.
A. had known
B. have known
2、Do you think there would be less conflict in the world if all people _____ the same language?
C. had spoken
D. will speak
3、If Bob____ with us, he would have had a good time.
A. would come
B. would have come
C. had come
在虚拟条件句中，如谓语包含were , had, should等词，则可以把这些词放到主语前面，省略if。
1、_____ you were busy, I wouldn t have bothered you with my questions.
A. If I realized
B. Had I realized
C. Did I have realized that
D. As I realized
2、_____, I should ask them some questions.
A. Should they come to us
B. If they come to us
C. Were they come to us
D. Had they come to us
1、Without your help, we _____ so much.
A. didn’t achieve
B. would not have achieved
C. will not achieve
D. don’t achieve
2、But for the rain, we _____ a nice holiday.
A. should have
B. would have had
C. would have
D. will have had
wish后的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气，而在虚拟语气中时态的应用类似在非真实条件中从句时态的应用。表示现在或将来的愿望用：主语＋wish ＋从句（主语＋过去时）；表示一个过去没有实现的愿望用：主语＋wish +从句（主语＋过去完成时）；
1、Peter wishes that he _____ law instead of literature when he was in college.
A. could study
C. had studied
D. would study
I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I _____ there.
B. would be
C. had been
D. will be
1、I’d _____ you didn’t touch that, if you don’t mind.
I am too busy these days. I would rather all of you _____ next month for a dinner.
B. would come
D. have come
六、以as if，as though引导的从句
在as if，as though引导的从句中，如果谈论的是不可能或不真实的情况时，它们所引用的状语从句要用虚拟语气，动词形式和wish 后面的从中动词形式变化相同。
1、He talks as if he _____ everything in the world.
C. had known
D. would have known
2、You are talking as if you had seen them
1、The doctor advised that Mr. Malan _____ an operation right away so as to save his life.
B. would have
D. was going to have
2、His mother insisted that he _____ the coat when going out.
A. put on
B. puts on
C. to put
D. putting on
八、It is necessary/important/urgent that引导的主语从句中，从句的谓语动词要用should+原形动词，should可以省略。
1、It’s desired that she _____ to teach us at least twice a week.
B. will come
D. may come
2、It’s urgent that a meeting _____ before the final decision is made.
A. will be arranged
B. must be arranged
C. be arranged
D. would be arranged
九、It is time (that)…引导的定语从句中，谓语动词用过去时。
1、It’s high time we _____ something to stop traffic accident.
B. will do
D. must do
2、Don’t you think it is time you _____ smoking?
A. give up
B. gave up
C. would give up
D. should give up
常用的连词有：when，whenever（无论什么时候），since，as，until，hardly…when，no sooner…than，as soon as，before，after，the moment，the minute（一…就…）
1、No sooner had they got the goods covered up _____ it started raining hard.
2、She has wanted to become a nurse _____ since she was a young girl.
常用if，unless（除非，如果不），as/so long as只要。
1、_____ I’m mistaken, I’ve seen that man before.
2、_____ you return those books to the library immediately you will have to pay a fine.
常用：because, as, since。如果表示必然的因果关系，一般用because引入；而since表示一种间接或附带的原因；用as 只是提一下。
1、He cannot go to school because he is ill.
2、Everyone likes you as you are both kind and honest.
常用though/although，as （尽管），even if/though，however，whatever，wherever，whoever，no matter how/what/who等
1、In short, _____ he lives, a man belongs to some society.
2、_____, you must show your ticket to go into the cinema.
A. No matter whoever you are
B. Whomever you are
C. Whoever you are
D. No matter who are you
3、_____ you disagree with her, her idea is still worth considering.
A. Even if
B. If only
C. Instead of
D. Despite of
4、Young _____ he is, he knows what is the right thing to do.
常用as, just as, as if/though 等词。
1、_____ was pointed above, this substance can be used as a substitute.
2、He talks as if he _____ everything in the world.
C. had known
D. would have known
常用so that , in order that, lest （以免，以防）, in case。
1、I wrote it down _____ I should forget it.
A. in case
B. in case of
C. in order that
D. for fear of
2、I’ll give you my phone number, so that you can call me when you arrive here.
They are _____ students that they all performed well in the nationwide examinations.
A. so diligent
B. such diligent
C. so much diligent
D. such very diligent
形式上复数、意义单数的名词做主语；动名词、不定式，从句做主语；a number+of+复数名词和the number+of+可数或不可数名词做主语；主语由as well as 等词修饰时的主谓一致；当用and连接的名词前有each，every等修饰时，谓语动词用单数。
Every means has been tried.
When and where the new hospital will be built _____ a mystery.
A. to remain
D. is remaining
三、当主语是a number+of+复数名词时，谓语动词用复数；当主语是the number+of+可数或不可数名词时，谓语动词用单数
1、A number of cars _____ in front of my house.
A. was parked
B. were parking
C. is parking
D. are parked
四、当主语由as well as 等词修饰时的主谓一致。当句中的主语后接as well as，along with，together with，including，accompanied by等短语+名词（代词）时，主语与谓语的一致关系不受影响，主语是单数名词时，谓语动词用单数形式，主语是复数形式时，谓语动词用复数。
1、John, along with twenty friends, is planning a party.
2、No one but Jane and Tom was there then.
五、当用and连接的名词前有each，every等修饰时，谓语动词用单数。当主语是each…and…，every…and every…，many a…and…结构时，谓语动词用单数。
1、Many a singer and dancer is to attend our evening party.
2、In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education.
1. Water is _______ short in many big cities.
2. Excuse me for _______ you with such a small matter.
3. This morning our water supply was _______ because of the cold weather.
A. let down
B. cut off
C. taken up
D. brought away
4. The market was filled with salted fish, _______ the worst smell that you can imagine.
A. sending off
B. giving up
C. sending down
D. giving off
5. It was because the applicant was too proud _______ he failed in the interview.
C. so that
6. Tom used to live in California, _______?
A. used he
B. did he
C. was he
D. didn’t he
7. So far there is no proof _______ people from other planets do exist.
8. Never before _______so highly successful in changing his surroundings.
A. man has been
B. man is
C. has man been
D. is man
9. _______ from the helicopter, the city looks very beautiful.
B. Having seen
D. To see
10. The newspapers reported yesterday several _______on the boundaries of these two countries.
11. Some of the students in his class seem _______to do their assignments.
12. Let’s work hard to find _______to the problem.
A. an answer
B. a way
C. a method
D. a solution
13. They have developed techniques which are _______ to those used in most factories.
14. At the beginning of this term，our English teacher _______a list of books for us to read.
A. turned out
B. made out
C. handed in
D. passed on
15. I’m sorry I have _______dictionary. You’d better go to the library.
A. not such
B. not such a
C. not a such
D. no such a
16. If Mary had not been badly hurt in a car accident, she _______in last month’s marathon race.
A. would participate
B. might participate
C. would have participated
D. must participate
17. Excuse me, but it is time to have your temperature _______.
D. to take
18. Liquids are like solids _______they have a definite volume.
A. in which
C. in that
19. When a friend gave Jim a ticket to the game, he _______go.
A. couldn’t help
B. cannot do but
C. couldn’t help but
D. just have to
20. I was surprised to find his article on such an _______topic so _______.
A. excited; boring
B. exciting; bored
C. exciting; boring
D. excited; bored
21. Tom likes _______foreign coins.
22. Luckily, most sheep _______the flood last month.
23. They thought about the problem for a long time but came to no _______.
24. The real trouble _______their lack of confidence in their abilities.
A. lies in
B. lies on
C. lies about
D. lies off
25. The story was so funny that everyone _______.
26. He _______me by two games to one.
27. _______, the next problem was how to make a good plan.
A. Having made the decision
B. Has the decision been made
C. The decision having been made
D. The decision has been made
28. The brain is capable of ignoring pain messages if _______to concentrate on other activities.
A. it allowed
C. is it allowed
D. allowed it
29. The child was sorry _______his mother when he arrived at the station.
A. to miss
B. having missed
D. to have missed
30. There is no point _______with him, since he has already made up his mind.
B. to argue
C. in arguing
D. of arguing
32. _______ helping those who are unwilling to help themselves?
A. What sense is it about
B. What’s the point of
C. What’s the sense with
D. What point is it in
33. It’s almost a year since I left my mother. I’m really _______ seeing her.
A. looking back on
B. looking up to
C. looking forward to
D. looking out over
34. If I found the book, I _______ it to you.
A. will bring
B. would have brought
C. would bring
D. might have brought
35. Criticism and self-criticism is necessary _______ it helps us to correct our mistakes.
A. in that
B. in time
C. in turn
D. in effect
36. The audience is _______ at last year’s concert.
A. much more than that
B. much larger than that
C. much larger than
D. large enough than
37. It occurred to her that she might _______ a homeless child.
38. He works too hard. That’s _______ is wrong with him.
39. All _______ is peace and progress.
A. what is needed
B. which is needed
C. that is needed
D. for our needs
40. People cannot close their eyes to the facts _______.
A. no longer
B. not any longer
C. any longer
D. not longer
1. _______ born in China, the boy was brought up in the USA.
2. _______ is known to all, haste makes waste.
3. That is the very old woman _______ house was burned down last night.
C. of whom
4. Hardly had he finished his speech _______ the audience started cheering.
D. as soon as
5. _______ the book, he found out some answers to this question.
A. As he reading
B. At his reading
C. As reading
D. On reading
6. The spacecraft will send back _______ on surface winds and temperatures.
A. many new information
B. some new information
C. a new information
D. a few new information
7. The reason for my refusal is _______ you’re unreliable.
C. due to
8. He came all the way to China for promoting friendship _______ for making money.
A. other than
C. apart from
D. rather than
9. If you don’t mind, I _______ do my homework than play cards with you.
A. had better
B. would rather
D. would like
10. No one, except his two best friends, _______ where he is.
B. to know
11. _______, you would have seen your favorite movie star.
A. If you arrived earlier
B. If you had arrived earlier
C. Unless you arrived earlier
D. Unless you had arrived earlier
12. The driver’s carelessness _______the death of three passengers.
A. resulted from
B. resulted in
C. came across
D. came about
13. In England,tea_______with milk and sugar.
A. is serving
B. is served
14. Written in great haste,_______.
A. the secretary made a lot of mistakes in the report
B. there were a lot of mistakes in the report
C. we found a lot of mistakes in the report
D. the report was full of mistakes
15. It’s suggested that each one of us_______the training classes for English.
A. takes part in
B. take part in
C. took part in
D. would take part in
16. The only thing _______interests me is the progress of my students.
17. People do not realize the importance of good health _______ they have lost it.
18. If there were no homework at weekends, students would have _______at home.
A. the happiest time
B. much happiest time
C. a more happier time
D. a much happier time
19. The reason he won the election is _______he is honest and confident of himself.
20. Mr. and Mrs. Brown _______ a small restaurant in China Town in New York.
21. He cannot _______ a car, for he doesn’t earn that much money.
22. It was in 1949_______the People’s Republic of China was founded.
23. Your hair needs _______, you’d better have it done tomorrow.
B. to cut
D. being cut
24. By the end of next year, I _______enough money to buy a house.
A. will save
B. have saved
C. must save
D. will have saved
25. Much _______our relief, he survived the severe earthquake.
26. Hasn’t he arrived yet? He is _______to be here at 8. Now it is 8:30.
27. It was kind of you _______ us when we were in trouble.
A. to help
C. who help
28. The engineer soon_______ that something had gone wrong with the project.
29. Mr. Smith is looking for an experienced secretary who is _______ of organizing a sales office.
30. Fifty dollars _______ a big sum of money for a ten-year-old boy.
C. to be
31. The new batteries(电池)cause little environmental problems and _______little space.
32. So badly _______in the accident that he was sent to the hospital for treatment.
A. he was injured
B. he injured
C. was he injured
D. injured he
33. They were so angry that they went over to the restaurant manager to _______ the service they had received.
B. complain about
D. argue about
34. To our surprise, the fashionable young lady we met in the hotel_______to be a thief.
A. turned up
B. turned over
C. turned down
D. turned out
35. The teacher had John _______at the door for an hour because he was late for class.
B. to stand
36. The price of apples _______ from ＄2 to ＄4 per kilo in supermarket.
37. For two months, I have _______ every day sitting by his bedside.
38. The 29th Olympic Games, _______ in Beijing in 2008, was a great success.
B. which held
C. to be held
D. was held
39. When it _______ to American history, he knows little about it.
40. _______,schools in city provide better surroundings for students.
A. Generally speaking
B. Generally spoken
C. To speak generally
D. Speaking generally
例：When we praise the Chinese leadership and the people, we are not merely being polite.
例：The mother might have spoken with understandable pride of her child.（adj通常可以翻译成n）
例I wrote four books in the first three years ,a record never touched before. (名词短语拆开)
例：即使在我们关掉床头灯甜甜地进入梦乡时，电仍然为我们工作：开动电冰箱，把水加热，或使室内空调机继续运转（beside lamp, fast asleep , refrigerator，air-condition）。
例：It was a Saturday evening, when Tom was lying on the bench of the school listening
to a blackbird( 画眉鸟) and composing（写作）a lyric（抒情诗）, that he saw the girls running among the trees.
（原句里一连串出现了一系列的动词如：lying, listening, composing, saw，这是按汤姆进行这些动作的先后顺序来描述的，如果在译文中打乱这些顺序，就反而会显得凌乱，没有逻辑。）
译文1:When he attended worship, he always took a certain seat, but they found that he took a different one that day.
译文2:They remarked how he took a different seat from that which he usually occupied when he chose to attend worship.
由上可见，正译法和反译法主要体现在汉语里是否使用“不”、“非”、“无”、“没有”、“未”、“否”等字眼，或是在英语里是否使用no, not等词或带有dis- ，im- ，in- ，un- ，-less等带否定含义的词缀。读者也可将例1，例2试着用反译法表达出来。结果就是：We strongly disapprove the company's new policy.和Appearances are deceptive. 至于两种译法得出的两个译文究竟哪一个更好，就要看译文是否准确规范，简练精辟，是否符合该语言使用者的表达习惯了。
1 . I should say Henry is______________(与其说是个作家不如说是) as a reporter.
2.In the Chinese household, grandparents and other relatives______________(起着不可缺少的作用) in raising children.
3. Mr. Johnson made full preparation for the experiment____________________(以便实验能顺利进行).
4. Prices are going up rapidly. Petrol now __________________________(价格是几年前的两倍).
5. How close parents are to their children __________________(有很强的影响) the character of the children. 翻译训练（2）
1._______________ (通过体育锻炼)，we can always stay healthy.
2.According to the scientific research , _____________ (听音乐能使我们放松).Is this really true?
3.______________ (我们绝对不能)ignore the value of knowledge.
4.As is known to all, ______________ (假冒伪劣商品)harm the interests of consumers.
5.Faced with failure,some people can stand up to it, _____________ (从失败中汲取教训)and try hard to fulfill what they are determined to do.
1.In this way, I believe that all the people may be able to _______________ （像我一样享受乘坐公车的乐趣）.
2.By practicing these, I have been able to _____________ （在智育方面我一直能不断进步）.
3.According to a recent survey, four million people ______________ （死于与吸烟有关的疾病）each year.
5.An increasing number of people are beginning to realize ______________ （教育不能随着毕业而结束）. 翻译训练（4）
1. _____________ (没有什么可做)，we played games．
2．He not only __________ (把枯燥的工作强加给我)，but also took away all our tips．
3. ___________ (在这种情况下)，I couldn't go away．
4．The population of Africa is growing _________(极其迅速)
5．The girl is too young to _____________(和她的父母分开)．
that is （to say）； e.g.；or，in other words；to put it in another way等。
如：She is bilingual. In other words，she speaks English and French equally well.
It is difficult to list all of my father’s attributes because he has so many different talen ts and abilities.
如：however；on the other hand；nevertheless等，我们不难推断这些生词的词义。如: If you agree，write “yes”；if you dissent，write “no”.（dissent：不同意）
例1.He is a courteous young man. He always pleases you and respects old people.
例2.Tame animals such as cats，dogs，and some birds make excellent pets；however，wild animals like lions and tigers are not good pets.
语篇标志词连接的主要内容有：（1）例解，如for instance，for example；（2）列举；（3）比较；（4）转折和对比；（5）原因；（6）结果；（7）方式和手段；（8）时间；（9）地点；（10）目的；（11）分类；（12）补充；（13）强调；（14）条件；（15）结论。
The best title for the passage is_______.
This passage talks mainly about________.
The main idea of this passage is…
What does this passage mainly discuss？
when，where，who，why，how（4w+ h）. 常见的问题有：
According to the passage，which of the following is true？
According to the passage，which of the following in NOT true？
According to the passage，all of the following are true EXCEPT…？
The passage suggests that…