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英语专升本考试重点复习内部资料 (专升本英语语法,词汇,阅读理解、翻译)

语法七大语法考试重点

一独立主格

(一):独立主格结构的构成:

名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词;

名词(代词)+形容词;

名词(代词)+副词;

名词(代词)+不定式;

名词(代词) +介词短语构成。

(二)独立主格结构的特点:

1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。

2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词等是主谓关系。

3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。

举例:

The test finished, we began our holiday.

= When the test was finished, we began our holiday.

The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.

= After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.

Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.

This done, we went home.

The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier.

He came into the room, his ears red with cold.

He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.

二过去完成时

1)概念:表示过去的过去其构成是had +过去分词构成。

2)用法

a.在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。

She said (that) she had never been to Paris.

b. 状语从句

在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。

When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.

c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn t.

3)过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。

He said that he had learned some English before.

By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.

Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

典型例题

The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office.

A. had written, left B,were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left

注意:had no sooner… than刚…… 就……

He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.

三强调结构

考试重点:

强调句型的基本形式It is(was)+被强调部分+that(who)…;强调句型用来强调状语。

一、强调句型的基本形式It is(was)+被强调部分+that(who)…。

二、强调句型用来强调状语。

1、It was in that small room_____ they worked hard and dreamed of better days to come.

A. where

B. in which

C. which d. that

2、It is because she is very devoted to her students _______she is respected by them.

A. that

B. which

C. what

D. who

3、It was not until she arrived in class _________realized she had forgotten her book.

A. and she

B. when

C. she

D. that she

四情态动词

考试重点:

情态动词+完成时

情态动词用来表示能力、允许、许诺、可能、劝告、意愿等概念或态度。情态动词无人称变化,在句子中和动词原形一起构成谓语。根据这几年的考试看,着重测验情态动词接完成时的用法。

一、must +现在完成时表示对已发生的事情的一种肯定的猜测。

1、Mr. Green _____ my letter, otherwise he would have replied before now.

A. must have received

B. must have failed to receive

C. must receive

D. must fail to receive

2、I believe he _____ an accident, otherwise he would have arrived on time.

A. would have had

B. could have had

C. should have had

D. must have had

二、should (ought to )+完成时表示应该做的事情而没有做,否定式表示不该做的事情做了。含有对过去的动作的责备、批评。

1、They have done things they ought _____.

A. not to do

B. not to be done

C. not to have done

D. not having done

2、I’m sorry I couldn’t get in touch with him before he left, I _____ him earlier.

A. had a telephone

B. have phoned

C. should have phoned

D. should be phoned

三、could +完成时表示能做的事情而没有做。表示对过去能做而未做的事情感到惋惜,遗憾。

1、He could have joined us, but he didn’t get our invitation in time.

2、I could have passed, but I did not study hard enough.

五虚拟语气

考试重点:

虚拟语气的基本形式和用法;if的省略形式;含蓄条件句;以wish(that)引导的表示“愿望”的宾语从句;would rather 引导的从句;以as if, as though 引导的从句;以suggest, advise, insist 等词后引导的宾语从句;It is necessary(important)that引导的主语从句;It is time (that)…句型中。

一、虚拟语气的基本形式和用法:

虚拟(条件)语气中,主句与从句中谓语动词的形式可分为下面三类:

1、I would ask George to lend us the money if I _____ him.

A. had known

B. have known

C. knew

D. know

2、Do you think there would be less conflict in the world if all people _____ the same language?

A. spoke

B. speak

C. had spoken

D. will speak

3、If Bob____ with us, he would have had a good time.

A. would come

B. would have come

C. had come

D. came

二、if的省略形式

在虚拟条件句中,如谓语包含were , had, should等词,则可以把这些词放到主语前面,省略if。

1、_____ you were busy, I wouldn t have bothered you with my questions.

A. If I realized

B. Had I realized

C. Did I have realized that

D. As I realized

2、_____, I should ask them some questions.

A. Should they come to us

B. If they come to us

C. Were they come to us

D. Had they come to us

三、含蓄条件句

有时一个假设的情况不用条件从句表示,而用其它方式来表示,这样的句子叫含蓄条件句。常用with,without,but for。

1、Without your help, we _____ so much.

A. didn’t achieve

B. would not have achieved

C. will not achieve

D. don’t achieve

2、But for the rain, we _____ a nice holiday.

A. should have

B. would have had

C. would have

D. will have had

四、以wish(that)引导的表示“愿望”的宾语从句

wish后的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气,而在虚拟语气中时态的应用类似在非真实条件中从句时态的应用。表示现在或将来的愿望用:主语+wish +从句(主语+过去时);表示一个过去没有实现的愿望用:主语+wish +从句(主语+过去完成时);

1、Peter wishes that he _____ law instead of literature when he was in college.

A. could study

B. studied

C. had studied

D. would study

I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I _____ there.

A. were

B. would be

C. had been

D. will be

五、would rather+句子(过去时)

1、I’d _____ you didn’t touch that, if you don’t mind.

A. rather

B. better

C. happier

D. further

I am too busy these days. I would rather all of you _____ next month for a dinner.

A. come

B. would come

C. came

D. have come

六、以as if,as though引导的从句

在as if,as though引导的从句中,如果谈论的是不可能或不真实的情况时,它们所引用的状语从句要用虚拟语气,动词形式和wish 后面的从中动词形式变化相同。

1、He talks as if he _____ everything in the world.

A. knows

B. knew

C. had known

D. would have known

2、You are talking as if you had seen them

七、以suggest,advise,insist等词后引导的宾语从句中,从句的谓语动词要用should+动词原形,should可以省略。类似的动词有:propose,order,demand,require,request等。

1、The doctor advised that Mr. Malan _____ an operation right away so as to save his life.

A. had

B. would have

C. have

D. was going to have

2、His mother insisted that he _____ the coat when going out.

A. put on

B. puts on

C. to put

D. putting on

八、It is necessary/important/urgent that引导的主语从句中,从句的谓语动词要用should+原形动词,should可以省略。

1、It’s desired that she _____ to teach us at least twice a week.

A. comes

B. will come

C. come

D. may come

2、It’s urgent that a meeting _____ before the final decision is made.

A. will be arranged

B. must be arranged

C. be arranged

D. would be arranged

九、It is time (that)…引导的定语从句中,谓语动词用过去时。

1、It’s high time we _____ something to stop traffic accident.

A. do

B. will do

C. did

D. must do

2、Don’t you think it is time you _____ smoking?

A. give up

B. gave up

C. would give up

D. should give up

六状语从句

在主从句中起状语作用的从句叫状语从句。常见的状语从句有时间、地点、条件、原因、让步、方式、比较、目的、结果。

一、时间状语从句

常用的连词有:when,whenever(无论什么时候),since,as,until,hardly…when,no sooner…than,as soon as,before,after,the moment,the minute(一…就…)

1、No sooner had they got the goods covered up _____ it started raining hard.

A. when

B. than

C. then

D. after

2、She has wanted to become a nurse _____ since she was a young girl.

A. long

B. often

C. always

D. ever

二、条件状语从句

常用if,unless(除非,如果不),as/so long as只要。

1、_____ I’m mistaken, I’ve seen that man before.

A. Unless

B. If

C. Because

D. Provided

2、_____ you return those books to the library immediately you will have to pay a fine.

A. Until

B. Unless

C. If

D. Provided

三、原因状语从句

常用:because, as, since。如果表示必然的因果关系,一般用because引入;而since表示一种间接或附带的原因;用as 只是提一下。

1、He cannot go to school because he is ill.

2、Everyone likes you as you are both kind and honest.

四、让步状语从句

常用though/although,as (尽管),even if/though,however,whatever,wherever,whoever,no matter how/what/who等

1、In short, _____ he lives, a man belongs to some society.

A. whatever

B. whenever

C. whichever

D. wherever

2、_____, you must show your ticket to go into the cinema.

A. No matter whoever you are

B. Whomever you are

C. Whoever you are

D. No matter who are you

3、_____ you disagree with her, her idea is still worth considering.

A. Even if

B. If only

C. Instead of

D. Despite of

4、Young _____ he is, he knows what is the right thing to do.

A. that

B. as

C. although

D. however

五、方式状语从句

常用as, just as, as if/though 等词。

1、_____ was pointed above, this substance can be used as a substitute.

A. It

B. That

C. What

D. As

2、He talks as if he _____ everything in the world.

A. knows

B. knew

C. had known

D. would have known

六、目的状语从句

常用so that , in order that, lest (以免,以防), in case。

1、I wrote it down _____ I should forget it.

A. in case

B. in case of

C. in order that

D. for fear of

2、I’ll give you my phone number, so that you can call me when you arrive here.

七、结果状语从句

常用so…that, such…that

They are _____ students that they all performed well in the nationwide examinations.

A. so diligent

B. such diligent

C. so much diligent

D. such very diligent

七主谓一致

考试重点:

形式上复数、意义单数的名词做主语;动名词、不定式,从句做主语;a number+of+复数名词和the number+of+可数或不可数名词做主语;主语由as well as 等词修饰时的主谓一致;当用and连接的名词前有each,every等修饰时,谓语动词用单数。

一、名词physics (物理),maths(数学),news(新闻),means(方法),works(工厂)等一般被认为是形式是复数,意思是单数的名词,它们做主语的时候动词一般用单数形式。

Every means has been tried.

二、动名词、不定式、从句做主语时,谓语动词用单数。

When and where the new hospital will be built _____ a mystery.

A. to remain

B. remains

C. remain

D. is remaining

三、当主语是a number+of+复数名词时,谓语动词用复数;当主语是the number+of+可数或不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数

1、A number of cars _____ in front of my house.

A. was parked

B. were parking

C. is parking

D. are parked

四、当主语由as well as 等词修饰时的主谓一致。当句中的主语后接as well as,along with,together with,including,accompanied by等短语+名词(代词)时,主语与谓语的一致关系不受影响,主语是单数名词时,谓语动词用单数形式,主语是复数形式时,谓语动词用复数。

1、John, along with twenty friends, is planning a party.

2、No one but Jane and Tom was there then.

五、当用and连接的名词前有each,every等修饰时,谓语动词用单数。当主语是each…and…,every…and every…,many a…and…结构时,谓语动词用单数。

1、Many a singer and dancer is to attend our evening party.

2、In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education.

语法》》语法词汇习题(一)

1. Water is _______ short in many big cities.

A. running

B. flowing

C. becoming

D. moving

2. Excuse me for _______ you with such a small matter.

A. troubling

B. taking

C. interrupting

D. making

3. This morning our water supply was _______ because of the cold weather.

A. let down

B. cut off

C. taken up

D. brought away

4. The market was filled with salted fish, _______ the worst smell that you can imagine.

A. sending off

B. giving up

C. sending down

D. giving off

5. It was because the applicant was too proud _______ he failed in the interview.

A. therefore

B. that

C. so that

D. so

6. Tom used to live in California, _______?

A. used he

B. did he

C. was he

D. didn’t he

7. So far there is no proof _______ people from other planets do exist.

A. which

B. how

C. what

D. that

8. Never before _______so highly successful in changing his surroundings.

A. man has been

B. man is

C. has man been

D. is man

9. _______ from the helicopter, the city looks very beautiful.

A. Seeing

B. Having seen

C. Seen

D. To see

10. The newspapers reported yesterday several _______on the boundaries of these two countries.

A. incidents

B. happenings

C. events

D. accidents

11. Some of the students in his class seem _______to do their assignments.

A. boring

B. interesting

C. tiring

D. unwilling

12. Let’s work hard to find _______to the problem.

A. an answer

B. a way

C. a method

D. a solution

13. They have developed techniques which are _______ to those used in most factories.

A. simpler

B. better

C. superior

D. greater

14. At the beginning of this term,our English teacher _______a list of books for us to read.

A. turned out

B. made out

C. handed in

D. passed on

15. I’m sorry I have _______dictionary. You’d better go to the library.

A. not such

B. not such a

C. not a such

D. no such a

16. If Mary had not been badly hurt in a car accident, she _______in last month’s marathon race.

A. would participate

B. might participate

C. would have participated

D. must participate

17. Excuse me, but it is time to have your temperature _______.

A. taking

B. take

C. taken

D. to take

18. Liquids are like solids _______they have a definite volume.

A. in which

B. that

C. in that

D. which

19. When a friend gave Jim a ticket to the game, he _______go.

A. couldn’t help

B. cannot do but

C. couldn’t help but

D. just have to

20. I was surprised to find his article on such an _______topic so _______.

A. excited; boring

B. exciting; bored

C. exciting; boring

D. excited; bored

21. Tom likes _______foreign coins.

A. gathering

B. assembling

C. collecting

D. accumulating

22. Luckily, most sheep _______the flood last month.

A. endured

B. survived

C. opinion

D. passed

23. They thought about the problem for a long time but came to no _______.

A. end

B. result

C. opinion

D. conclusion

24. The real trouble _______their lack of confidence in their abilities.

A. lies in

B. lies on

C. lies about

D. lies off

25. The story was so funny that everyone _______.

A. laughed

B. interested

C. amused

D. joked

26. He _______me by two games to one.

A. beat

B. conquered

C. gained

D. won

27. _______, the next problem was how to make a good plan.

A. Having made the decision

B. Has the decision been made

C. The decision having been made

D. The decision has been made

28. The brain is capable of ignoring pain messages if _______to concentrate on other activities.

A. it allowed

B. allowed

C. is it allowed

D. allowed it

29. The child was sorry _______his mother when he arrived at the station.

A. to miss

B. having missed

C. missing

D. to have missed

30. There is no point _______with him, since he has already made up his mind.

A. argue

B. to argue

C. in arguing

D. of arguing

32. _______ helping those who are unwilling to help themselves?

A. What sense is it about

B. What’s the point of

C. What’s the sense with

D. What point is it in

33. It’s almost a year since I left my mother. I’m really _______ seeing her.

A. looking back on

B. looking up to

C. looking forward to

D. looking out over

34. If I found the book, I _______ it to you.

A. will bring

B. would have brought

C. would bring

D. might have brought

35. Criticism and self-criticism is necessary _______ it helps us to correct our mistakes.

A. in that

B. in time

C. in turn

D. in effect

36. The audience is _______ at last year’s concert.

A. much more than that

B. much larger than that

C. much larger than

D. large enough than

37. It occurred to her that she might _______ a homeless child.

A. adapt

B. adopt

C. adjust

D. admit

38. He works too hard. That’s _______ is wrong with him.

A. how

B. where

C. why

D. what

39. All _______ is peace and progress.

A. what is needed

B. which is needed

C. that is needed

D. for our needs

40. People cannot close their eyes to the facts _______.

A. no longer

B. not any longer

C. any longer

D. not longer

语法》》语法词汇习题(二)

1. _______ born in China, the boy was brought up in the USA.

A. Although

B. Since

C. As

D. When

2. _______ is known to all, haste makes waste.

A. What

B. That

C. As

D. Which

3. That is the very old woman _______ house was burned down last night.

A. which

B. her

C. of whom

D. whose

4. Hardly had he finished his speech _______ the audience started cheering.

A. than

B. then

C. when

D. as soon as

5. _______ the book, he found out some answers to this question.

A. As he reading

B. At his reading

C. As reading

D. On reading

6. The spacecraft will send back _______ on surface winds and temperatures.

A. many new information

B. some new information

C. a new information

D. a few new information

7. The reason for my refusal is _______ you’re unreliable.

A. because

B. that

C. due to

D. for

8. He came all the way to China for promoting friendship _______ for making money.

A. other than

B. instead

C. apart from

D. rather than

9. If you don’t mind, I _______ do my homework than play cards with you.

A. had better

B. would rather

C. prefer

D. would like

10. No one, except his two best friends, _______ where he is.

A. know

B. to know

C. knows

D. knowing

11. _______, you would have seen your favorite movie star.

A. If you arrived earlier

B. If you had arrived earlier

C. Unless you arrived earlier

D. Unless you had arrived earlier

12. The driver’s carelessness _______the death of three passengers.

A. resulted from

B. resulted in

C. came across

D. came about

13. In England,tea_______with milk and sugar.

A. is serving

B. is served

C. serves

D. served

14. Written in great haste,_______.

A. the secretary made a lot of mistakes in the report

B. there were a lot of mistakes in the report

C. we found a lot of mistakes in the report

D. the report was full of mistakes

15. It’s suggested that each one of us_______the training classes for English.

A. takes part in

B. take part in

C. took part in

D. would take part in

16. The only thing _______interests me is the progress of my students.

A. what

B. that

C. which

D. it

17. People do not realize the importance of good health _______ they have lost it.

A. until

B. when

C. since

D. as

18. If there were no homework at weekends, students would have _______at home.

A. the happiest time

B. much happiest time

C. a more happier time

D. a much happier time

19. The reason he won the election is _______he is honest and confident of himself.

A. why

B. what

C. that

D. which

20. Mr. and Mrs. Brown _______ a small restaurant in China Town in New York.

A. serve

B. start

C. open

D. run

21. He cannot _______ a car, for he doesn’t earn that much money.

A. obtain

B. get

C. deserve

D. afford

22. It was in 1949_______the People’s Republic of China was founded.

A. when

B. while

C. as

D. that

23. Your hair needs _______, you’d better have it done tomorrow.

A. cut

B. to cut

C. cutting

D. being cut

24. By the end of next year, I _______enough money to buy a house.

A. will save

B. have saved

C. must save

D. will have saved

25. Much _______our relief, he survived the severe earthquake.

A. to

B. in

C. for

D. with

26. Hasn’t he arrived yet? He is _______to be here at 8. Now it is 8:30.

A. regarded

B. supposed

C. considered

D. known

27. It was kind of you _______ us when we were in trouble.

A. to help

B. helping

C. who help

D. help

28. The engineer soon_______ that something had gone wrong with the project.

A. remembered

B. realized

C. recognized

D. memorized

29. Mr. Smith is looking for an experienced secretary who is _______ of organizing a sales office.

A. able

B. capable

C. possible

D. responsible

30. Fifty dollars _______ a big sum of money for a ten-year-old boy.

A. are

B. is

C. to be

D. being

31. The new batteries(电池)cause little environmental problems and _______little space.

A. use

B. hold

C. occupy

D. maintain

32. So badly _______in the accident that he was sent to the hospital for treatment.

A. he was injured

B. he injured

C. was he injured

D. injured he

33. They were so angry that they went over to the restaurant manager to _______ the service they had received.

A. complain

B. complain about

C. argue

D. argue about

34. To our surprise, the fashionable young lady we met in the hotel_______to be a thief.

A. turned up

B. turned over

C. turned down

D. turned out

35. The teacher had John _______at the door for an hour because he was late for class.

A. stand

B. to stand

C. stood

D. stands

36. The price of apples _______ from $2 to $4 per kilo in supermarket.

A. differed

B. ranged

C. changed

D. altered

37. For two months, I have _______ every day sitting by his bedside.

A. taken

B. cost

C. spent

D. paid

38. The 29th Olympic Games, _______ in Beijing in 2008, was a great success.

A. held

B. which held

C. to be held

D. was held

39. When it _______ to American history, he knows little about it.

A. talks

B. speaks

C. comes

D. tells

40. _______,schools in city provide better surroundings for students.

A. Generally speaking

B. Generally spoken

C. To speak generally

D. Speaking generally

翻译》》英语考试翻译题六大法则

1)合句法

把原文中两个或以上的简单句,主从复合句或并列复合句等译成一个单句。

例:她已试了好几次,要帮他们另找一所出租的房子,结果并未成功。

例:他们有遵守交通规则,机器出了故障。

例:When we praise the Chinese leadership and the people, we are not merely being polite.

2) 正译法

就汉译英而言,就是把句子按照与汉语相同的表达方式译成英语。

例:我们强烈反对公司的新政策。

例:人不可貌相。

3) 分句法

把原文中一个单词或短语译成句子,使原文的一个句子分译成两个或两个以上的句子。或干脆把原文的一个句子拆开,译成两个或两个以上的句子。

例:八月中旬,修理组人员在骄阳下工作。

例:他为人单纯而坦率。

例:The mother might have spoken with understandable pride of her child.(adj通常可以翻译成n)

例I wrote four books in the first three years ,a record never touched before. (名词短语拆开)

4) 顺序法

顺序法翻译不改变原文表达语序,不会影响对原文内容的理解。

例:即使在我们关掉床头灯甜甜地进入梦乡时,电仍然为我们工作:开动电冰箱,把水加热,或使室内空调机继续运转(beside lamp, fast asleep , refrigerator,air-condition)。

在句子中,句子前半部分是一个让步状语从句,后半句的“开动”,“加热”,“使……运转”都是“电在为我们工作”的具体内容。因而在译文中,译者将这三个并行动作处理成了V-ing 形式,补充说明working的内容。译文按照原句的语序完全传达了原文的意思,采用顺序法翻译,达到了“精确,通顺”的目的。

例:It was a Saturday evening, when Tom was lying on the bench of the school listening

to a blackbird( 画眉鸟) and composing(写作)a lyric(抒情诗), that he saw the girls running among the trees.

(原句里一连串出现了一系列的动词如:lying, listening, composing, saw,这是按汤姆进行这些动作的先后顺序来描述的,如果在译文中打乱这些顺序,就反而会显得凌乱,没有逻辑。)

5)逆序法

逆序法根据目标语使用者表达习惯与目标语读者的认知能力,按原文语序反向翻译,以便更好地传达原文的内容。

例:他经常做礼拜的时候,总坐在固定的座位上,可是那天他们发现他不坐在老地方。

请读者比较下面两句译文,你认为哪一句较好?

译文1:When he attended worship, he always took a certain seat, but they found that he took a different one that day.

译文2:They remarked how he took a different seat from that which he usually occupied when he chose to attend worship.

两种译文都忠实传达了原文内容。第一种为顺序翻译,第二种为逆序翻译。第一种显得有些冗长拖沓,且前后简单句主语不一致(前半句主语为he,后半句主语是they),给人表述混乱之感。第二种由于采用了逆序法将原句意思用一个复合句表达出来,内容清晰,结构紧凑。

顺序法和逆序法主要是针对翻译长句而言,六级新题型汉译英题不会涉及此类译法,但作为翻译策略之一,应有所了解

6)反译法

就汉译英而言,就是把句子按照与汉语相反的表达方式译成英语。

例:酒吧间只有五个顾客还没有走。

例:这台机器一点儿也不复杂。

由上可见,正译法和反译法主要体现在汉语里是否使用“不”、“非”、“无”、“没有”、“未”、“否”等字眼,或是在英语里是否使用no, not等词或带有dis- ,im- ,in- ,un- ,-less等带否定含义的词缀。读者也可将例1,例2试着用反译法表达出来。结果就是:We strongly disapprove the company's new policy.和Appearances are deceptive. 至于两种译法得出的两个译文究竟哪一个更好,就要看译文是否准确规范,简练精辟,是否符合该语言使用者的表达习惯了。

翻译训练(1)

1 . I should say Henry is______________(与其说是个作家不如说是) as a reporter.

2.In the Chinese household, grandparents and other relatives______________(起着不可缺少的作用) in raising children.

3. Mr. Johnson made full preparation for the experiment____________________(以便实验能顺利进行).

4. Prices are going up rapidly. Petrol now __________________________(价格是几年前的两倍).

5. How close parents are to their children __________________(有很强的影响) the character of the children. 翻译训练(2)

1._______________ (通过体育锻炼),we can always stay healthy.

2.According to the scientific research , _____________ (听音乐能使我们放松).Is this really true?

3.______________ (我们绝对不能)ignore the value of knowledge.

4.As is known to all, ______________ (假冒伪劣商品)harm the interests of consumers.

5.Faced with failure,some people can stand up to it, _____________ (从失败中汲取教训)and try hard to fulfill what they are determined to do.

翻译训练(3)

1.In this way, I believe that all the people may be able to _______________ (像我一样享受乘坐公车的乐趣).

2.By practicing these, I have been able to _____________ (在智育方面我一直能不断进步).

3.According to a recent survey, four million people ______________ (死于与吸烟有关的疾病)each year.

4.______________(没有一项发明获得如此多的表扬和批评)than Internet.

5.An increasing number of people are beginning to realize ______________ (教育不能随着毕业而结束). 翻译训练(4)

1. _____________ (没有什么可做),we played games.

2.He not only __________ (把枯燥的工作强加给我),but also took away all our tips.

3. ___________ (在这种情况下),I couldn't go away.

4.The population of Africa is growing _________(极其迅速)

5.The girl is too young to _____________(和她的父母分开).

阅读》》解析专升本英语阅读理解

因为时间有限,且每篇文章后面仅考五道题目,也就意味着考生实际上也没有必要通读全文,所以考场上的制胜关键就在于你是否能在短时间内迅速处理完文章了

阅读理解是对字、词、句法的进一步学习和综合运用。在做阅读理解题时,除了掌握前面介绍的基本题型、基本法则外,还要进行有意识的阅读训练。提高阅读能力的训练主要可以从下面几个方面入手:词汇、方法、侧重点。

1.词汇:猜词的技巧。

最基本的猜词技巧有两种:

一是根据构词法的规则猜(转化法、派生法、合成法、截短法和首尾字母结合法);

另一种猜词的技巧是根据上下文的描述、解释、列举、比较等,运用已有的知识,分析、推断该词的含义。常用的猜词技巧可归纳为以下几种:

(1)利用词根、词缀构词法推测词义。通过构词法推测词义是最常用的方法之一。

(2)分析文中对该词的直接定义推测词义。

作者在行文中有时不得不使用某些难词、偏词,为使读者理解,作者常常会在文章中直接解释该词语。作者或通过同位语,或使用定语从句加以阐明,或用冒号、破折号、括号给出,或用语篇标志词引出,这类语篇标志词有:

that is (to say); e.g.;or,in other words;to put it in another way等。

如:She is bilingual. In other words,she speaks English and French equally well.

(3)分析文中对该词的近义复述推测词义。

同一短文中前后两个句子、短语或单词通常有互释作用,可以从上下文的复述中获取与某一单词或短语相关的信息以猜测词义。如:

It is difficult to list all of my father’s attributes because he has so many different talen ts and abilities.

(4)分析文中对该词的对比和并列表述推测词义。

利用上下文中的对比或并列表述猜测词义是最常用、最可靠的方法。有不少句子会在上下文中给出某个生词(尤其是偏词、难词)的同义词或反义词,运用对比或并列表达对这些生词加以推测。通过了解词与词之间的连接关系,特别是一些语篇标志词,

如:however;on the other hand;nevertheless等,我们不难推断这些生词的词义。如: If you agree,write “yes”;if you dissent,write “no”.(dissent:不同意)

(5)根据常识推测词义。

有些生词看似很难,但根据语境,根据读者的经历或常识,很容易猜出词义。如果所读的材料是考生熟悉的内容或在自己专业知识范围内,生词就更易化解了。

其实,猜词的方法并不限于以上这些,大家在阅读中要多动脑筋,善于总结,还能总结出一些更适合自己的技巧和方法来。

综合例题:从三个选项中找出与黑体词含义相符的答案。

例1.He is a courteous young man. He always pleases you and respects old people.

A.polite

B.short

C.very

例2.Tame animals such as cats,dogs,and some birds make excellent pets;however,wild animals like lions and tigers are not good pets.

A.hairy

B.calm

C.loud

2.阅读理解的解题方法。

(1)先看文章后做题。

(2)先看题目后读文章再做题。

带着问题去阅读,文章中的内容与考题相关时仔细阅读,与题目无关时可以置之不理,很快跳过去。

还有一些题目涉及一般常识或科普知识,可以在未阅读文章之前自己先行判断,在阅读时只要对自己的判断进行验证就可以了。

(3)快速阅读文章后面的题目,并将题目中的关键词(一般为实词,并且含有重要信息)用笔画出来。阅读过程中,考生可以将含有重要信息的词、短语或句子等用笔画出来。

阅读理解的三个侧重点。

注意不要逐字逐句地死抠,而要有所侧重。

(1)侧重首段、尾段,首句、尾句。

(2)侧重语篇标志词。

语篇标志词连接的主要内容有:(1)例解,如for instance,for example;(2)列举;(3)比较;(4)转折和对比;(5)原因;(6)结果;(7)方式和手段;(8)时间;(9)地点;(10)目的;(11)分类;(12)补充;(13)强调;(14)条件;(15)结论。

(3)侧重长句、难句。

阅读理解的问题可分为:

主题思想判断细节定位逻辑推理

1. 主题思想判断

常见的问题为:

The best title for the passage is_______.

This passage talks mainly about________.

The main idea of this passage is…

What does this passage mainly discuss?

2. 细节定位

when,where,who,why,how(4w+ h). 常见的问题有:

According to the passage,which of the following is true?

According to the passage,which of the following in NOT true?

According to the passage,all of the following are true EXCEPT…?

The passage suggests that…